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# Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction

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3 (b) The 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 electron configuration is that of an inert gas because of filled 3 s and 3 p subshells. (c) The 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 electron configuration is that of a halogen because it is one electron deficient from having a filled L shell. (d) The 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 electron configuration is that of an alkaline earth metal because of two s electrons. (e) The 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 2 4s 2 electron configuration is that of a transition metal because of an incomplete d subshell. (f) The 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 1 electron configuration is that of an alkali metal because of a single s electron. 2.11 (a) The 4 f subshell is being filled for the rare earth series of elements. (b) The 5 f subshell is being filled for the actinide series of elements.
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Unformatted text preview: 2.12 The attractive force between two ions F A is just the derivative with respect to the interatomic separation of the attractive energy expression, Equation (2.8), which is just F A = dE A dr = d ( )- A r dr = A r 2 The constant A in this expression is defined in footnote 3 on page 21. Since the valences of the K + and O 2-ions are +1 and -2, respectively, Z 1 = 1 and Z 2 = 2, then F A = (Z 1 e )(Z 2 ) 4 πε o r 2 = (1)(2)(1.6 x 10-19 C) 2 (4)( π )(8.85 x 10-12 F/m)(1.5 x 10-9 m) 2 = 2.05 x 10-10 N 2.13 (a) Differentiation of Equation (2.11) yields dE N dr = A r (1 + 1)- nB r (n + 1) = 0...
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