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2.5

# Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction

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2 2.5 The n quantum number designates the electron shell. The l quantum number designates the electron subshell. The m l quantum number designates the number of electron states in each electron subshell. The m s quantum number designates the spin moment on each electron. 2.6 For the L state, n = 2, and eight electron states are possible. Possible l values are 0 and 1, while possible m l values are 0 and ± 1. Therefore, for the s states, the quantum numbers are 200( 1 2 ) and 200(- 1 2 ). For the p states, the quantum numbers are 210( 1 2 ), 210(- 1 2 ), 211( 1 2 ), 211(- 1 2 ), 21(-1)( 1 2 ), and 21(-1)(- 1 2 ). For the M state, n = 3, and 18 states are possible. Possible l values are 0, 1, and 2; possible m l values are 0, ± 1, and ± 2; and possible m s values are ± 1 2 . Therefore, for the s states, the quantum numbers are 300( 1 2 ), 300(- 1 2 ), for the p states they are 310( 1 2 ), 310(- 1 2 ), 311(\F(1,2)), 311(-\F(1,2)), 31(-1)(\F(1,2)), and 31(-1)(-\F(1,2)); for the d states they are 320( 1 2 ), 320(- 1 2 ), 321( 1 2 ), 321(- 1 2 ), 32(-1)(
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Unformatted text preview: ), 32(-1)(-1 2 ), 322( 1 2 ), 322(-1 2 ), 32(-2)( 1 2 ), and 32(-2)(-1 2 ). 2.7 The electron configurations of the ions are determined using Table 2.2. Fe 2+- 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 6 Fe 3+- 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 5 Cu +- 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 Ba 2+- 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 4d 10 5s 2 5p 6 Br-- 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 S 2-- 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 2.8 The Cs + ion is just a cesium atom that has lost one electron; therefore, it has an electron configuration the same as xenon (Figure 2.6). The Br-ion is a bromine atom that has acquired one extra electron; therefore, it has an electron configuration the same as krypton. 2.9 Each of the elements in Group VIIA has five p electrons. 2.10 (a) The 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 7 4s 2 electron configuration is that of a transition metal because of an incomplete d subshell....
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