BCH4024 - Long Lecture 54

BCH4024 - Long Lecture 54 - Lecture 57: Transcriptional...

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1 Eukaryotic RNA polymerases DNA RNA Protein Replication Transcription Translation Lecture 57: Transcriptional regulation Eukary. transcriptional reg. Office hours 1-3 pm 4/23 Review session 1-3 pm 4/24 Final exam is lectures 45-57 on Tuesday, 4/28, 7:30-9:30 am Molecular biology techniques Today’s lecture: Chapter 28 selected sections ; Ch 8: Sanger sequencing; Ch 9: DNA cloning, site-directed mutagenesis, polymerase chain reaction Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes ¾ Increased complexity; different RNA polymerases Polymerase I—pre-rRNA Polymerase II—structural pre-mRNA, some snRNA Polymerase III—pre-tRNA, 5S rRNA, other small RNAs ¾ Positive vs. negative control Transcription factors; hormone receptors ¾ Regulation at transcription: specific factors, hormones and positive modulators of transcription Transcription is precisely programmed during development and tissue differentiation. This is why there is so much interest in stem cells and dedifferentiating cells. ¾ Chromatin structural changes at active sites DNA is condensed in the nucleus. It has to be selectively unwound for transcription . ¾ Spatial separation of transcription and translation pre-mRNA is processed before export from the nucleus ¾ Post-transcriptional regulation Alternative splicing of transcripts ( introns and exons ) mRNA stability ( 5’ capping, 3’ poly A tail ) Translational control ( as above and protein binding )
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2 mRNA transcription by polymerase II ¾ RNA polymerase II is “recruited” to promoter regions by the positive action of sequence specific factors and enhancers, creating a binding site for polymerase II at the promoter region of selected genes. ¾ A variety of factors interact to promote transcription of selected genes, depending on the presence of certain sequence elements in the promoter region, as well as regions upstream and downstream from the start site of transcription. ¾
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BCH4024 - Long Lecture 54 - Lecture 57: Transcriptional...

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