BIS104 Slide16

BIS104 Slide16 - Lecture 16 Development and Cell Fate...

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Lecture 16 Development and Cell Fate Determination
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1) Cells grow, divide, or die 2) Form mechanical attachments 3) Send and receive signals to adjacent cells 4) Differentiate by changes in gene expression 5) All controlled by genome , which is identical in virtually all cells, but is expressed differently in different cells
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Three main phases: Phase 1 : Body plan is established by cleavage of fertilized egg to generate many smaller cells, by gastrulation , and by neurulation Phase 2 : Organogenesis - basic structure of body organs is generated Phase 3 : Final detailed structures of neonate generated. Much of phase 3 continued in adult to replace wear and tear (eg. skin and liver)
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Cleavage and establishment of head/tail axis
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Figure 22-68b Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) Internal tissues (e.g. gut) Outer tissues (e.g. skin)
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Rotation of the cell cortex towards the future ventral side by ~30˚ (direction affected by the point of sperm entry Rotation is due to microtubule re-organization )
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Figure 22-67 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008)
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Figure 22-71 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) The Blastula Blastocoel: the single cavity in blastula, contains fluid
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Gastrulation
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Sea Urchin Gastrulation Gastrulation Blastula Gastula Figure 22-3 (part 1 of 3) Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008)
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Figure 22-3 (part 2 of 3) Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) Vegetal pole
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Figure 22-73a Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) Spemann’s organizer Gastrulation in Xenopus Hans Spemann, 1935 Nobel prize
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Spemann’s organizer establishes body axis The mesoderm from Spemann’s organizer forms notochord
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Cell migration in an developing embryo can be view as a process of sorting out cells of the same kind Cells of the same kind bind to each other (and looking for more to bind) Binding is mediated by Cadherins (Ca 2+ ) -> Cell migrations mediated by cell adhesion molecules: Cadherins Figure 22-77 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008)
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This note was uploaded on 03/15/2010 for the course BIS 104 taught by Professor Scholey during the Fall '08 term at UC Davis.

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BIS104 Slide16 - Lecture 16 Development and Cell Fate...

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