BIS104 Slide17

BIS104 Slide17 - Lecture 17 1.Cell re-renewal in...

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Lecture 17 1.Cell re-renewal in tissues/organs 2. Immune systems
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Three main phases: Phase 1 : Body plan is established by cleavage of fertilized egg to generate many smaller cells, by gastrulation , and by neurulation Phase 2 : Organogenesis - basic structure of body organs is generated Phase 3 : Final detailed structures of neonate To replace wear and tear ( eg. skin and liver)
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Some tissues and organs are formed during embryogenesis and are retained throughout adult life- with minimal or no replication e.g. many nerve cells, auditory hair cells, len cells
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Figure 23-17 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) Some cells can self-renew without replication e.g. the rod cells of retina :constantly make new rhodopsin (photosensitive GPCR)
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Some tissues and organs are formed during embryogenesis, differentiate, and are maintained in adult through simple duplication- e.g. liver (hepatocytes ) & endothelial cells
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Figure 23-28c Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) Respond to liver damage by release of heptocyte growth factor -> increased replication of remaining hepatocytes Hepatocytes: self-renewal by cell duplication An imbalanced of Fibroblast growth over hepatocyte growth -> liver cirrhosis
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Other tissues are maintained through stem cells - e.g. skin , blood and muscle
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Proliferation + Differentiation Stem cells Terminally differentiated cells
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Figure 23-3 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008)
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Figure 23-7 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008)
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During development, Skeletal muscles arise as myoblasts (committed stem cells) that migrate to correct positions, then proliferate and fuse to form multinucleate muscle cells Figure 23-48 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008)
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In adult, the number of muscle cells no longer increase. Exercise increases muscle mass primarily by increasing size of muscle cells, not number However, skeletal muscle stem cells ( satellite cells ) remain in adult that can replicate and add to ends if old muscle is damaged Figure 23-51 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008)
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Figure 20-16 Molecular Biology of the Cell (© Garland Science 2008) Cancers may arise from cancer stem cells Cancer stem cells are harder to kill, since they divide slower yet most therapies target fast-dividing typical cancer cells
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Proliferation + Differentiation Multipotent stem cells Terminally differentiated
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This note was uploaded on 03/15/2010 for the course BIS 104 taught by Professor Scholey during the Fall '08 term at UC Davis.

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BIS104 Slide17 - Lecture 17 1.Cell re-renewal in...

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