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Depression - (b)Leaming setbacks(c Selective focus on...

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Depression 1) Mania (bipolar type) a) Elevated, expansive or irritable mood for at least one week, with at least 3 of: i) Inflated self-esteem ii) Less need for sleep iii) Pressured speech iv) Flight of idea v) Increase in goal directed activity vi) Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities 2) Etiological factors i) Bio: Genetic vulnerability (1) Concordance rate for mood disorders in identical twins much higher than that of fraternal twins (2) Sleep disturbances (3) Neurological bases (a) Under activity of norepinephrine and serotonin (b) Reduced hippocampus volume by 8-10% ii) Psychological factors (1) Interpersonal roots (a) Inadequate social skills (2) Stress precipitates depressive episodes iii) Cognitive factors (1) Learned helplessness (2) Becks theory (a) Errors in cognitive style lead to depression
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Unformatted text preview: (b)Leaming setbacks (c) Selective focus on negative events (d)Undue pessimism (3) Excessive rumination 3) Causality a) Negative thoughts + neurochemical changes Anxiety 1) Physiological symptoms a) Racing heart, sweating. . b) From fight or flight response, excessively c) Panic Disorder i) Recurrent attacks of anxiety ii) Often feels like heart attack (1) Similar symptoms iii) Panic attacks-fear of public attacks-agoraphobia d) Phobias i) Persistant & irritational fear of an object of situation ii) Most common; biologically supposed 2) Obsessive compulsive disorder a) Obsessions i) Persistent thoughts ii) Cleaning, cooking b) Compulsions i) Urges to engage in useless rituals ii)...
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  • Spring '07
  • PASSER
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Major depressive disorder, inadequate social skills, Reduced hippocampus volume

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