Midterm #2 notes - Dear Class, T he format for the second...

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Dear Class, The format for the second midterm will be the same as the first. You will be given two questions. You are to choose one of them and answer it in an essay. In your essay, you are to draw from the material in the course lectures, and from the chapter introductions and documents in Van Voorst. You may also find it helpful to read pages 74 through 120 in the Marty book. For the exam, you will be asked to incorporate at least two of the documents from the Van Voorst book into your essay. Below are the topics for which you are to prepare: Essay topics to prepare for: * Be prepared to explain in what ways the papacy was weak in the 10 th century, and in what ways was it strong by the year 1200, and how it got that way. *Be able to discuss what problems, crises, and developments between 1300 and 1500 weakened the prestige and power of the papacy as the spiritual leader of Western Christianity. In the fourteenth and fifteenth century there were numerous events, decisions and political occurrences that led to the loss of strength and prestige within the papacy. A major driving force of this decay was the power struggle for the Holy Roman Empire. The weak financial state of the church and the struggle for papal sovereignty were elements that allowed corruption to desecrate the papacy. This decline can be traced back to the strengthening in relations of the papacy with France. The strength of this relationship eventually falls to Prince Phillip IV when he imprisons Boniface for trying to end the taxation of his clergy. The papacy is so weak that Phillip IV even manages to destroy the order of the Templars by forcing his own decided French pope, Clement V, into the position. This would create a succession of worldly popes that would soon revitalize Rome and strengthen the papacy while sacrificing the prestige, holiness and Finances, War, “Popular religious responses to the great Plague” Anti-Semitism Bablylonian Captivity
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Avignon Crisis, indulgences and simony Return to Rome creates schism multiple popes Mob, Clement V, Renaissance Gutenburg’s printing press Scholastic Movement *Be able to explain why the following four issues led to disagreements between Protestants during the time of the Reformation; be able to identify which groups of Protestants divided over the issue: the Real Presence of Christ’s body in the Eucharist (John 6:50-55) my flesh is truly food and my blood is truly drink o The debate of the presence of Christ’s body in the Eucharist can be traced back to a book written around 844 by Radbertus which defined the bread of wine of the Eucharist to exhibit transubstantiate qualities by changing into the real Body & Blood of Christ. This view would later become a Lutheran belief and was the catalyst for a schism between Protestantism and Lutheranism during the Reformation. Lutherans believe that the Eucharist is Christ’s Body & Blood regardless of the faith of the recipient, but the faithless must be wary of the wrath of Christ if they are to receive the Eucharist. Protestant belief continued
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Midterm #2 notes - Dear Class, T he format for the second...

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