Bio+102+notes+-+Ch+48%2C+49%2C+50

Bio+102+notes+-+Ch+48%2C+49%2C+50 - Endocrine Regulation...

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Unformatted text preview: Endocrine Regulation Chapter 48 KEY CONCEPTS Endocrine glands and tissues secrete hormones, chemical messengers that bind to specific receptors on (or in) target cells and regulate physiological processes Learning Objective 1 Compare endocrine with nervous system function Describe how these systems work together to regulate body processes Endocrine System Endocrine glands, cells, tissues that secrete hormones (chemical signals) regulate physiological processes Typically transported by blood Signals a wide range of target cell types May be located far from the endocrine gland secreting the hormone Most endocrine responses are slow but long-lasting Nervous System Helps regulate many endocrine responses Neuro-endocrine system Same signal molecule can function as a neurotransmitter or a hormone depending on source Neurons signal other neurons, muscle cells, gland cells including endocrine cells Responds rapidly to stimuli transmits electrical and chemical signals KEY CONCEPTS The endocrine and nervous systems work closely together to regulate life processes and maintain homeostasis Learning Objective 2 How is endocrine action regulated by negative feedback systems? Negative Feedback Systems Regulate hormone secretion Hormones released in response to change in steady state trigger responses Decreases hormone production Can have knock on effects on other hormone pathways and production Restore homeostasis Negative Feedback Fig 48-1 KEY CONCEPTS Most endocrine processes are regulated by negative feedback systems, often involving concentrations of specific ions or chemical compounds Learning Objective 3 Identify four main chemical groups to which hormones are assigned Give two examples for each group Hormone Groups Fig 48-2a 1. Fatty acid derivatives Prostaglandins (synthesized from arachnidonic acid) juvenile hormone of insects Hormone Groups (Fig 48-2b) 2. Steroid hormones secreted by adrenal cortex, ovary, testis, placenta Synthesized from cholesterol Hormone Groups (Fig 48-2c) 3. Amino acid derivatives thyroid hormones epinephrine norepinephrine All derived from tyrosine Melatonin Synthesized from tryptophan Hormone Groups Fig 48-2d 4. Peptide and protein hormones Peptide hormones e.g. glucagon-like hormone, secretin, ACTH, calcitonin Neuropeptides e.g. Oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone (from hypothalamus) Protein hormones e.g. insulin (protein), growth factors Learning Objective 4 Compare four types of endocrine signaling Types of Endocrine Signaling (Fig 48-3) Local Regulators Some are considered hormones use autocrine and paracrine signaling Growth factors (paracine, autocrine) peptides stimulate cell division, development Some implicated in oncogenesis Prostaglandins (paracrine) help regulate many metabolic processes stimulate smooth muscle cells to relax and contract...
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Bio+102+notes+-+Ch+48%2C+49%2C+50 - Endocrine Regulation...

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