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bone_tissue_class_notes

bone_tissue_class_notes - Bone Tissue Dynamic tissue that...

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Bone Tissue Dynamic tissue that continually remodels itself Bones and bone tissue bone or osseous tissue is a connective tissue with a matrix hardened by minerals bones make up the skeletal system individual bones are made up of bone tissue marrow cartilage periosteum
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Functions of the Skeletal System Support – hold up body, muscles & organs Protection – organs & bone marrow Movement – muscle attachment Blood formation – bone marrow RBCs/WBCs Mineral reservoir – stores calcium & phosphate pH balance – buffers blood by absorbing or releasing alkaline salts Detoxification – removes heavy metals from blood; can later slowly release
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Shapes of Bones
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Structure of a Flat Bone External and internal surfaces of flat bone are composed of compact bone Middle layer is spongy bone (Diploe No marrow cavity Blow to the skull may fracture outer layer and crush diploe, but not harm inner compact bone
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Flat Bones Most cranial bones Ribs Sternum (breastbone) Scapula (shoulder blade) Os coxae (hipbone)
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Structure of a Long Bone Periosteum layer of fibrous connective tissue covering the bone Articular cartolage hyaline cartilage over ends for lubrication Compact bone Spongy bone Endosteum lines internal surface Yellow marrow- fat Diaphysis – shaft Epiphysis - head
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Long Bones Humerus Radius Ulna Metacarpals Phalanges Femur Tibia Fibula Metatarsals Phalanges
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Short & Irregular Bones Short Carpals (wrist) Tarsals (ankle) Irregular Sphenoid & Ethmoid bones of the cranium Vertebrate (backbone or spine)
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General Features of Bones Shaft (diaphysis) cylinder of compact bone contains marrow cavity (medullary cavity) lined with endosteum (cells providing bone resorption & deposition) Enlarged ends (epiphyses) spongy bone covered with a layer of compact bone enlarged to strengthen joint & provide for attachment of tendons and ligaments Remainder of bone covered with periosteum outer fibrous layer continuous with tendons inner osteogenic layer important for growth & healing Epiphyseal plate or line depends on age
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Cells of Osseous Tissue Osteogenic reside in endosteum or periosteum multiply continuously & differentiate into osteoblasts Osteoblasts form organic matter of matrix & help to mineralize it in response to stress or fractures Osteocytes are osteoblasts that have become trapped reside in lacunae by are connected to each other via caniculi signal osteoclasts & osteoblasts about mechanical stresses
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Cells of Osseous Tissue Osteoclasts – bone-dissolving cells develop in bone marrow by the fusion of the same stem cells that give rise to monocytes of the blood Reside in pits called resorption bays that they have eaten into the surface of the bone
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Matrix of Osseous Tissue Dry weight is 1/3 organic & 2/3 inorganic matter
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