40207_23 - PULTRUSION Brian A . Wilson 23 ment and...

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PULTRUSION 23 Brian A. Wilson 23.1 INTRODUCTION The word pultrusion is used to describe a com- mercial fabrication process for the production of fiber reinforced composite elements. First mention of the process is recorded in a patent in 1951 with much of the early work in the 1950s attributed to W. Brandt Goldsworthyl. He performed much of the process develop- ment and manufactured the equipment to pro- duce structural elements by the method. A typical pultrusion machine is shown in Fig. 23.1. The process has a relationship to extru- sion, which is used primarily with metals and describes the process of forming a shape using a closed die and pushing normally hot metallic materials through the die. Pultrusion differs in Handbook of Composites. Edited by S.T. Peters. Published in 1998 by Chapman & Hall, London. ISBN 0 412 54020 7 Fig. 23-1 Typical Pulkusion machine. (Courtesy of W. Brant Goldsworthy and Associates Inc.)
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The basic process 489 that it takes advantage of the strength of the longitudinal fibers in the section to pull the extruded shape through the forming die and the heated curing die to create a constant cross section structural element from a composite materials system. Hence the name pultrusion. curing energy in the heated die to cure the com- posite into a hard structural product and using the resulting shape as a unidirectional strength element for commercial structures. The primary advantages of pultrusion are as follows: Use of this-process has now expanded both in the USA and around the world with many manufacturers equipped to produce the simple structural elements which are the main pultru- sion products. The process was labeled for the first 30 years or so of its existence as a com- mercial production method. This was owing to ~roductioniscontinuous~ 0 labor requirements are low; 0 material scrap rate is low; 0 the requirement for support materials is eliminated, i.e. breathers, bleeder cloth, sep- arator film, bagging film, edge tape. the nature of the method, using longitudinal fibers and a simple thermoset resin system to produce a structural shape which had its pri- mary strength in the longitudinal direction and properties in the transverse and third axis relating only to those of the resin system. The ability to incorporate three-dimensional strength first occurred in the mid 1960s when it became possible to include layers of mat/fab- ric and circumferentially wound layers of fiber both with the body and on the surface of the structural shapes. Multi-directional reinforce- ment was used extensively starting in the 1970s2, 3. These developments, plus the intro- duction of thermoplastic resin matrices, have brought the pultrusion process into the manu- facturing arena of the aerospace, defense and aircraft businesses as a relatively inexpensive and repeatable method of producing a constant cross-section structural element48 *.
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40207_23 - PULTRUSION Brian A . Wilson 23 ment and...

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