40207_intro - INTRODUCTION COMPOSITE BASICS AND ROAD MAP S.T Peters This is an introduction to composites and will encourage the reader to obtain

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INTRODUCTION, COMPOSITE BASICS AND ROAD MAP* S.T. Peters This is an introduction to composites and will encourage the reader to obtain more informa- tion. Only the basic concepts will be covered here; reference will be made to the chapters in the book that expand or follow up and elabo- rate on these basics. The reader will see that the subjects of this book cover the spectrum of composites and range from the basic and sim- ple to the complex. Thus, there are complicated equations because they are the tools that are used every day to describe real structures; and there will also be the more gen- eral, less complicated approaches that are limited in analysis power. These chapters have been developed by the most knowledgeable composite professionals in the world; a blend of academicians and the engineers who fabri- cate real composite structures. Modern structural composites, frequently referred to as ’Advanced Composites’, are a blend of two or more components, one of which is made up of stiff, long fibers, and the other, a binder or ’matrix’ which holds the fibers in place. The fibers are strong and stiff relative to the matrix and are generally orthotropic (having different properties in two different directions). The fiber, for advanced structural composites, is long, with length to diameter ratios of over 100. The fiber’s strength and stiffness are usually much greater, perhaps several times more, than the matrix material. The matrix material can by polymeric (e.g. polyester resins, epoxies), Handbook of Composites. Edited by S.T. Peters. Published in 1998 by Chapman & Hall, London. ISBN 0 412 54020 7 metallic, ceramic or carbon. When the fiber and the matrix are joined to form a composite they retain their individual identities and both directly influence the composite’s final proper- ties. The resulting composite will generally be composed of layers (laminae) of the fibers and matrix stacked to achieve the desired proper- ties in one or more directions. The high strength or stiffness to weight ratios of advanced composites are well known, but there are other advantages also (Table 1.1). These advantages translate not only into air- craft, but into everyday activities, such as longer drives with a graphite-shafted golf club (because more of the mass is concentrated at the clubhead) or less fatigue and pain because a graphite composite tennis racquet has mher- ent damping. Generally, the advantages accrue for any fiber/composite combination and dis- advantages are more obvious with some. These advantages have now resulted in many more reasons for composite use as shown in Table 1.2. Proper design and material selection can circumvent many of the disadvantages. 1.1 MATERIAL SYSTEMS An advanced composite laminate can be tai- lored so that the directional dependence of strength and stiffness matches that of the load- ing environment. To do that, layers of unidirectional material called laminae are ori- * This chapter has been adapted from S.T. Peters, in Handbook of Plastics Elastomers and Composites, 3rd edn, (ed.
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This note was uploaded on 03/16/2010 for the course MECHANICAL ME765401 taught by Professor Prof.sulis during the Spring '10 term at Institut Teknologi Bandung.

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40207_intro - INTRODUCTION COMPOSITE BASICS AND ROAD MAP S.T Peters This is an introduction to composites and will encourage the reader to obtain

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