310-27 - CH 310 N T Th 2-3:30 LECTURE 27 Textbook...

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CH 310 N T Th 2-3:30 LECTURE 27 Textbook Assignment: Chapter 26 (selections) Homework (for credit): POW 13 posted Today’s Topics: Begin Lipids Notice & Announcements: Course Evaluation-In class Today Organic Lecture Series 2 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates
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Organic Lecture Series 3 Important Carbohydrate Polymers Important Carbohydrate Polymers 1.Starch 2.Cellulose 3.Glycogen Organic Lecture Series 4 • Starch is used for energy storage in plants – it can be separated into two fractions; amylose and amylopectin; each on complete hydrolysis gives only D-glucose amylose amylose is composed of continuous, unbranched chains of up to 4000 D-glucose units joined by α -1,4-glycosidic bonds amylopectin amylopectin is a highly branched polymer of D-glucose; chains consist of 24-30 units of D- glucose joined by α -1,4-glycosidic bonds and branches created by α -1,6-glycosidic bonds Starch Starch
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Organic Lecture Series 5 O O H HO H H O OH H H OH O H HO H H O OH H H OH O H HO H H O OH H H OH α -D-glucose polymer in a α -1,4 linkage 1 1 1 4 4 α Organic Lecture Series 6 O OH H HO H H O OH H H O O H HO H H O OH H CH 2 H O H HO H H O OH H H α -D-glucose polymer in a α -1,6 linkage 1 1 1 6 CH 2 6 OH OH α
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Organic Lecture Series 7 • Cellulose is a linear polymer of D- glucose units joined by β -1,4- glycosidic bonds –it has an average molecular weight of 400,000 g/mol, corresponding to approximately 2800 D-glucose units per molecule –both rayon and acetate rayon are made from chemically modified cellulose Cellulose Cellulose Organic Lecture Series 8 Cellulose Cellulose
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Organic Lecture Series 9 Glycogen is the reserve carbohydrate for animals –glycogen is a nonlinear polymer of D- glucose units joined by α -1,4- and α -1,6- glycosidic bonds bonds –the total amount of glycogen in the body of a well-nourished adult is about 350 g (about 3/4 of a pound) divided almost equally between liver and muscle Glycogen Glycogen Organic Lecture Series 10 O OH H HO H H O OH H H O O H HO H H O OH H CH 2 H Glycogen: α -1,6 and α -1,4 linkages 1 1 1 6 O H HO H H O OH H H OH 4 OH
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Organic Lecture Series 11 Organic Lecture Series 12 Lipids Lipids include: ¾ triglycerides, phospholipids, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, and fat-soluble vitamins ¾ cholesterol, steroid hormones, and bile acids
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Organic Lecture Series 13 – example: example: a triglyceride derived from one molecule each of palmitic acid, oleic acid, and stearic acid, the three most abundant fatty acids in the biological world CH 2 OC(CH 2 ) 14 3 2 OC(CH 2 ) 16 3 3 (CH 2 ) 7 CH=CH(CH 2 ) 7 COCH O O O oleate (18:1) stearate (18:0) palmitate (16:0) Triglycerides Triglycerides Organic Lecture Series 14 • Natural soaps are prepared by boiling lard or other animal fat with NaOH, in a reaction called saponification (Latin, sapo , soap) Sodium soaps 1,2,3-Propanetriol (Glycerol; Glycerin) A triglyceride (a triester of glycerol) + saponification + CH CH 2 OCR CH 2 OCR CHOH CH 2 OH CH 2 OH RCO 3NaOH 3RCO - Na + O O O O COO - + Soaps & Detergents Soaps & Detergents
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Organic Lecture Series 15 • Soaps clean by acting as emulsifying agents
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310-27 - CH 310 N T Th 2-3:30 LECTURE 27 Textbook...

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