bio101notes - Chapter 20 recombinant DNA dna molecules...

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Chapter 20 recombinant DNA dna molecules formed through in vitro combination of DNA segments from two different sources biotechnology → manipulation of organisms or their components to make useful products genetic engineering → direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes challenges facing studying a particular gene: - DNA molecules very long, many genes, most non-coding DNA Cloning: - uses E.coli - plasmids → small circular DNA molecules that replicate separately from bacterial chromosome - 1. isolate plasmid from bacteria cell - 2. insert forein DNA to create recombinant - return DNA to bacterial cell → recombinant bacterium - single cell → cloned (gene cloning) - useful to make copies of a gene or produce protein product 1. Restriction Enzymes to make Recombinant DNA - restriction enzymes (endonucleases) → cut DNA molecules at a limited number of specific locations (protect bacterial cell by cutting up foreign DNA) - each has specific restriction site (methyl group addition protects bacterias dna) - most restriction sites symmetrical (4-8 nucleotides) restriction fragments are created
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bio101notes - Chapter 20 recombinant DNA dna molecules...

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