This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.
r
,
I
I
I
Applied
Models
in
Urban
and
Regional
Analysis
NORBERT OPPENHEIM
Polytechnic Institute of New York
PRENTICEHALL, INC., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey
07632
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.
View Full Document CH. I
INTRODUCTION
30
Compute:
(a)
The mean
J.L
(b)
The variance
a
Z
(c)
The standard deviation
a
1.11
Following are the data for the number of fire stations observed in 20 dif
ferent localities:
1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
11
12
13
14
15
16 17
18
19
20
nl
13 10
2 1 7 3 6 0 2
8
3
6
5
2
3
0
5
12
(a)
Plot a frequency distribution of the corresponding random variable.
(b)
Plot a cumulative frequency distribution function.
(c)
Find the average number of fire stations, as observed in the sample.
(d)
Find the sample variance.
1.12
Show that the average of the deviations from the sample mean
lin
~
(XI 
I
X)
is always equal to zero.
(Hint:
Factor out the expression.) Justify this on
physical grounds.
1.13
Show that the standard deviation is not equal to the average deviation from
the mean.
(Hint:
Use the fact that";
a
Z
+
b
2
=F
a
+
b.)
REFERENCES
ANG, A. H., AND W. TANG.
Probability Concepts in Engineering, Planning and
Design,
Vol. 1. New York: John Wiley
&
Sons, Inc., 1975.
BLALOCK, H. M.
Theory Construction: From Verbal to Mathematical Formulations.
Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: PrenticeHall, Inc., 1969.
CHADWICK, G.
A Systems View of Planning.
Elmsford, N.Y.: Pergamon Press,
Inc., 1971.
FELLER, W.
An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications.
New York:
John Wiley
&
Sons, Inc., 1969.
McLOUGHLIN, J. B.
Urban and RegionalPlanning.
. A Systems Approach.
New York:
Praeger Publishers, Inc., 1969.
MILLS, G.
Introduction to Linear Algebra for Social Scientists.
London: George
Allen
&
Unwin Ltd., 1968.
O'BRIEN, R. J., AND G. G. GAREIG.
Mathematics for Economists and Social Scien
tists.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1971.
2======
Demographic Models
2.1
Introduction
Planning
and
analysis
in this book refer to planning for community develop
ment and analysis of public policy. Thus, these activities must be based on
the knowledge of the makeup of the population to which these plans are
directed. The size, age distribution, socioeconomic status, and ethnic dis
tribution of the population are essential factors in the preparation of a plan
or the determination of policy alternatives.
Of course, it is always possible to determine the existing values of these
characteristics either by census or by survey research methods. However,
plans and policy are by nature oriented toward the future. Thus, estimates
of the composition of a given population at.a future date will be necessary.
The purpose of this chapter is to introduce some of the basic methods of
population projection.
The study of the characteristics of a population and of their evolution
through time and space constitutes the field of
demography.
This is a highly
technical field, and a thorough exposition would require much more than
one chapter. Thus, although one would not expect a planner or policy
analyst to be an expert, he or she will need to understand the fundamental
demographical methods.
This is the end of the preview. Sign up
to
access the rest of the document.
This note was uploaded on 03/16/2010 for the course CRP 3210 at Cornell University (Engineering School).
 '09
 DONAGHY,K.

Click to edit the document details