Civil_War_Seapower - CIVIL WAR 1861-1865 Strategy and...

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1 CIVIL WAR 1861-1865 Strategy and Application of Sea Power in the Civil War
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Learning Objectives The role of the Union Navy in the strategy for defeat of the Confederacy The role of the Confederate Navy in the strategy for defeat of the Union Vital importance of European allies in South’s naval strategy Innovations in weapons and technology
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Civil War Background Balance of Power Naval Comparison Common Operational Heritage Confederate States Navy Union Navy
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Diplomacy North’s Goal British neutrality South’s Diplomacy Goal: Win British recognition and aid “ King Cotton theory Not to necessarily defeat the North, but to break the will of the Northern forces to continue fighting Problems Outcome
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Trent Affair November 8, 1861 James M. Mason and John Slidell, representing the South, board an English ship, the HSS Trent . Their motive is to compel the English to aid the South in the War.
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Trent Affair (cont’d) Union Captain Charles Wilkes, commanding the San Jacinto , intercepts the Trent at Sea, and boards her. North wants to take Mason and Slidell as prisoners. English refuses, but North prepares to fire on the Trent, and the English give in. Mason and Slidell are taken to Boston Harbor as prisoners.
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Trent Affair (con’t) England is outraged and threatens to go to war. President Lincoln formally apologizes to Britain, and denies any knowledge or sanction, by the government, in the matter. Furthermore, Mason and Slidell are released, and Britain backs down.
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Significance North dodges bullet by resolving the Trent Affair peacefully with Britain. If England had entered the war, it would have ended the chances of the North to defeat the South.
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Northern Strategy - “Anaconda Plan” Blockade Southern coast Bombardment and amphibious assault of ports for advanced bases Control Mississippi River (Riverine operations) Combined Army-Navy ops
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Southern Strategy Coastal Defense Blockade breaking Blockade running Commerce Raiding Privateers Confederate States Navy No prize courts
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Naval Situation-1861 South depended on cotton South had virtually no industry If north accomplished goal then the South would wither and die Union policy: “Anaconda” “Choke” trade and commercial life of the South
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Naval Situation-1861 Effect of blockade policy on the South 1864: 1 gold dollar was worth 2,000 Confederate dollars At the outbreak the North was not well equipped to suit their goals Under leadership of Sec. Nav. Gideon Welles the navy grew exponentially
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Naval Situation-1861 The union navy had only 42 ships in commission with 7,600 men South: Few shipyards, weak industrial base, no veteran sailors
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Sec. Nav. Gideon Welles Instrumental in building navy up to meet its goals of blockading thousands of miles of southern ports
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C.S.A. Sec. Nav., Stephen Mallory Played very key role for south buy helping institute ironclads in southern navy.
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This note was uploaded on 03/16/2010 for the course NAVSC 102 taught by Professor Hammond during the Spring '08 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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Civil_War_Seapower - CIVIL WAR 1861-1865 Strategy and...

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