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cpe151_lec1_vlsi_overview

cpe151_lec1_vlsi_overview - Overview of VLSI Design...

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Overview of VLSI Design
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Background VLSI is a relatively new field Started with SSIs in early 60’s (a few BJTs and resistors on a chip) Today’s chips have millions of simple MOS transistors and perform complex functions
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Why VLSI? Building complex electronic circuits using discrete components are difficult and expensive Cost depends on # of devices Integrated circuits solved much of the problems Print many tiny circuits on a flat surface - “easy” as taking pictures Cost depends on die size
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Moore’s Law Resolution of the printing process has improved exponentially Feature size has shrunk by 0.7 times every 3 years Intel’s Gordon Moore in early 80’s predicted that this trend would continue Cost of printing process has grown modestly Thus, cost per function has dropped exponentially
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Moore’s Law (continued) At each new generation (every 3 years), the cost per function have dropped by a factor of 2 Shrinking an existing chip makes it cheaper! t Die cost t log(#dev) t log(cost/func)
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But... Cost of manufacturing ICs have remained flat but design cost has not Design productivity has not improved at the same rate as the complexity of the chips So the cost of chip design has grown exponentially with the complexity of the ICs Integrated circuits are attractive in terms of manufacturing cost but not in terms of design cost and risk
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What Fits On A Chip Today? State of the art IC 18mm on each side (324 mm2) 0.25um drawn gate length 1um wire pitch (18,000 wire pitches) 4-5 level metal 0.25um (2 λ ) 1um (8 λ )
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Technology Scaling Number of ‘grids’ per chip quadruples every 3 years More functionality per chip More difficult to design What to do with all the space?
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