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Unformatted text preview: Cognitive processes:-Thought is circular Types of Representations-Concepts: category of objects/events/ideas with common properties. e.g. birds, washing, beauty-Formal (same properties for all members). e.g. t riangles (clearly defined properties)-Natural (not all members have same properties. e.g. mammals. prototypes--Propositions-Relate concepts. Relational.-Can be statements. e.g. dog chases squirell or June slapped jim-Can be t rue/false-Schemas: generalizations about categories/people/places/events-Scripts: at a movie we pay for the ticket, get popcorn and drink, enter theater, sit down, and watch. Schema of sequence of events.-Mental Models: relating things spatially in your mind. e.g. think of the months of the year. or imagining things.-Images: can be manipulated. mental pictures-Cognitive maps: mental maps-Manipulation of these representations= thinking-We use these representations to guide thought.-Types of thought:-Formal reasoning: using precise procedures to come to acorrect conclusion-Algorithms: ax+b=3c. Logical, step by step procedures that always produce the solution.-Logic: if a>b and b>c, then a>c-Syllogisms: Deduction. premise 1, premise 2, therefore premise 3.-Informal reasoning: based on observed regularities or believability.-Save time and effort, use a heuristic.-Anchoring heuristic: a mental shortcut that involves basing new judgments on a previous mental/judgment assessment. Problem: starting point biases the final estimate.-Representativeness heuristic: A mental shortcut that involves judging whether something belongs in given class on the basis of similarity to other members of that class. Problem: this shortcut often ignores the base rate of events-Availability heuristic: A mental shortcut through which judgments are based on info that is most easily brought to mind.-Informal reasoning is dangerous if too relied upon. It’s easy, but not always correct. Consider the importance of the judgment. Problem Solving Obstacles-Ignoring negative evidence: once have a hypothesis- ignore contradictory evidence-Confirmation bias: focus on evidence that confirms current beliefs-Mental sets: stuck on solutions that don’t work-fixation: an inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective-framing: way issue posed influence decisions-Fixation: the inability to see a problem from a new perspective-Functional fixedness: tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions....
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This note was uploaded on 03/17/2010 for the course PSC PSC 1 taught by Professor Elizabeth during the Fall '09 term at UC Davis.
- Fall '09