PSC notes - Cognitive processes-Thought is circular Types...

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Cognitive processes: -Thought is circular Types of Representations -Concepts: category of objects/events/ideas with common properties. e.g. birds, washing, beauty -Formal (same properties for all members). e.g. triangles (clearly defined properties) -Natural (not all members have same properties. e.g. mammals. prototypes - -Propositions -Relate concepts. Relational. -Can be statements. e.g. dog chases squirell or June slapped jim -Can be true/false -Schemas: generalizations about categories/people/places/events -Scripts: at a movie we pay for the ticket, get popcorn and drink, enter theater, sit down, and watch. Schema of sequence of events. -Mental Models: relating things spatially in your mind. e.g. think of the months of the year. or imagining things. -Images: can be manipulated. mental pictures -Cognitive maps: mental maps -Manipulation of these representations= thinking -We use these representations to guide thought. -Types of thought: -Formal reasoning: using precise procedures to come to acorrect conclusion -Algorithms: ax+b=3c. Logical, step by step procedures that always produce the solution. -Logic: if a>b and b>c, then a>c -Syllogisms: Deduction. premise 1, premise 2, therefore premise 3. -Informal reasoning: based on observed regularities or believability. -Save time and effort, use a heuristic. -Anchoring heuristic: a mental shortcut that involves basing new judgments on a previous mental/judgment assessment. Problem: starting point biases the final estimate. -Representativeness heuristic: A mental shortcut that involves judging whether something belongs in given class on the basis of similarity to other members of that class. Problem: this shortcut often ignores the base rate of events
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-Availability heuristic: A mental shortcut through which judgments are based on info that is most easily brought to mind. -Informal reasoning is dangerous if too relied upon. It’s easy, but not always correct. Consider the importance of the judgment. Problem Solving Obstacles -Ignoring negative evidence: once have a hypothesis- ignore contradictory evidence -Confirmation bias: focus on evidence that confirms current beliefs -Mental sets: stuck on solutions that don’t work -fixation: an inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective -framing: way issue posed influence decisions -Fixation: the inability to see a problem from a new perspective -Functional fixedness: tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions.
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  • Fall '09
  • ELIZABETH
  • mental shortcut, smallest sound unit, -3 word stage, foreign Language development, common properties. e.g.

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