ch6-2

# ch6-2 - GMFC 1 GEOMETRIC MODELING A First Course Copyright...

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GMFC 4/12/99 1 GEOMETRIC MODELING: A First Course Copyright © 1995-1999 by Aristides A. G. Requicha Permission is hereby granted to copy this document for individual student use at USC, provided that this notice is included in each copy. 6.5 Boolean Operations This section discusses several problems related to computing BReps of solids that are combined by regularized set operations, usually called simply Boolean operations . 6.5.1 Boundary Evaluation and Merging Regularized set operations have precise mathematical definitions, and therefore the evaluation of S = A B is a well-defined mathematical problem. Here A , B , and hence S are r -sets, and is a regularized set operator (union, difference or intersection). We saw in Section 6.1 that a mathematical problem may have many computational versions, depending on the representations selected for the input and output. If the input and output representations are CSG trees, the problem is trivial: the output CSG tree consists simply of the input subtrees joined by a new operator node. As a more interesting example, there are efficient algorithms for computing Boolean operations when the input and output are represented by octrees. In this text, we focus on Boolean opeartion calculations that involve BReps, because these are the most common and important versions of the general problem. The algorithms to be discussed are all based on a fundamental fact: boundaries may be destroyed, but they cannot be created by Boolean operations. In precise terms, this can be expressed as follows. Boundary Inclusion Relationship: ( A B ) ⊆ ∂ A ∪ ∂ B . This is easy to prove rigorously. It implies that the BRep of a solid S that results from one or more Boolean operations can be computed by first generating a superset of its boundary as the union of the boundaries of the sets being combined, and then discarding those portions of the superset that are not on S . This is an instance of a commonly-used algorithmic paradigm called generate-and-test .. In pseudo-code the algorithm is as follows. Algorithm 6.5.1.1 Generate a sufficient set of tentative faces F for each F do { FwrtS = ClassFaceSol(F,S); AddToBRep(Fons); } Generation of tentative faces is guided by the boundary inclusion relationship discussed above. Testing is done by set membership classification. Not shown in the pseudo-code

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GMFC 4/12/99 2 above (and in the algorithms to be discussed in the next subsections) is a clean-up phase, in which adjacent faces lying on the same surface are merged, and links required by the specific BRep scheme being used are established. (It is possible to clean up as you go, by using a sophisticated AddToBRep routine. This makes the code harder to understand, and will be ignored in this text.) A sufficient set of faces is any set that includes S . The boundary inclusion relationship immediately suggests that we use the faces of A and the faces of B to compute the BRep of S = A B . If we do that, we have a boundary merging problem, which can be defined as follows.
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ch6-2 - GMFC 1 GEOMETRIC MODELING A First Course Copyright...

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