Material to Main Points in Chapter One:
A sample of concepts used in the course:
CITY: An urban place regardless of its size. "For sociological purposes a city may
be defined as a relatively large, dense, and permanent settlement of socially
heterogeneous individuals." (
CITY-MILLIONAIRE: An urban place with a population of 1,000,000 or above.
CITY SIZE DISTRIBUTION
The succession of population sizes for cities
or metropolitan areas in a given territory. Most commonly, the term is applied
to countries. The two most common distributions are: (1) "
when one city or metropolitan area is clearly pre-eminent, with more than
three times the population of any other, and (2) "
" - when no single
metropolitan area is pre-eminent and city sizes are in accordance with the
rank-size rule: the second largest city is approximately half as large as the
first, the third largest is about a third as large, the fourth is about a fourth as
The most urbanized and densely-populated area of a country, in
and around the principal cities. Typically this region is more prosperous and
productive than the remainder of the country and has higher levels of socio-
: A consequence of urbanization, which came to
view from observing (first, in Europe) that as urbanization and per capita
incomes rose there came improvements in nutrition and medical care. This
has caused beneficial declines in mortality, particularly in infant mortality.
Then, the birth rates started to decrease, up to the level (and beyond) of the
mortality, mainly because of the larger involvement of women with
employment and business earnings that uplifted the rights of women and went
together with diminishing labor cooperation inside urban families. The
opportunities of having many children are decreasing when both the husband
and wife are preoccupied with job-related or business-related advancements
and when the cost of children is getting high due to uplifted requirements for
education. Consult relevant demographic graphs in the Carmen item in
Demographic Transition: A Consequence of Urbanization."
Development is a process of sustained change,
growth or progress, which is viewed as desirable. Some observers define
development as "
", some define it as "
raising the quality of life
", and still others as "
". More developed countries and regions are described as
" or "
"; while less developed countries and regions are
INTERNAL SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF CITIES: In the 1930s to the mid-1945