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Material to Main Points in Chapter One

Material to Main Points in Chapter One - Material to Main...

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Material to Main Points in Chapter One: A sample of concepts used in the course: CITY: An urban place regardless of its size. "For sociological purposes a city may be defined as a relatively large, dense, and permanent settlement of socially heterogeneous individuals." ( Louis Wirth, 1938 ). CITY-MILLIONAIRE: An urban place with a population of 1,000,000 or above. CITY SIZE DISTRIBUTION : The succession of population sizes for cities or metropolitan areas in a given territory. Most commonly, the term is applied to countries. The two most common distributions are: (1) " sharp primacy " - when one city or metropolitan area is clearly pre-eminent, with more than three times the population of any other, and (2) " rank-size " - when no single metropolitan area is pre-eminent and city sizes are in accordance with the rank-size rule: the second largest city is approximately half as large as the first, the third largest is about a third as large, the fourth is about a fourth as large, etc. CORE REGION : The most urbanized and densely-populated area of a country, in and around the principal cities. Typically this region is more prosperous and productive than the remainder of the country and has higher levels of socio- economic development. DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION : A consequence of urbanization, which came to view from observing (first, in Europe) that as urbanization and per capita incomes rose there came improvements in nutrition and medical care. This has caused beneficial declines in mortality, particularly in infant mortality. Then, the birth rates started to decrease, up to the level (and beyond) of the mortality, mainly because of the larger involvement of women with employment and business earnings that uplifted the rights of women and went together with diminishing labor cooperation inside urban families. The opportunities of having many children are decreasing when both the husband and wife are preoccupied with job-related or business-related advancements and when the cost of children is getting high due to uplifted requirements for education. Consult relevant demographic graphs in the Carmen item in " Demographic Transition: A Consequence of Urbanization." DEVELOPED COUNTRIES : Development is a process of sustained change, growth or progress, which is viewed as desirable. Some observers define development as " economic growth ", some define it as " modernization ", some as " raising the quality of life ", and still others as " increasing self- sufficiency ". More developed countries and regions are described as " developed " or " advanced "; while less developed countries and regions are described as "developing ".
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