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Study list for lecture 23

Study list for lecture 23 - 12-carbon fatty acid using...

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Study list for lecture 22 Ketone bodies Know how ketone bodies are synthesized. Know the structures and names of the intermediates (Abbreviations are sufficient, for example, HMG-CoA) Know the physiological roles of ketone bodies and how ketone bodies are used to provide energy Understand why diabetes and starvation lead to ketosis Know what is Atkin’s diet Fatty acid biosynthesis Understand why Malonyl-CoA is a better a building block for fatty acid biosynthesis than acetyl CoA Know how Malonyl-CoA is synthesized (enzyme, cofactor, flexible arm) Know the four basic steps in biosynthesis (condensation, reduction, dehydration, reduction). You need to know what are the electron-carries and which steps the carriers are used in fatty acid synthesis. Know that there are 7 active sites in fatty acid synthase complex, but no need to memorize the enzyme names. Know what is ACP and the differences and similarities between ACP and CoA. Know the stoichiometry of fatty acid biosynthesis. For example, how many ATPs are needed for synthesizing a
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Unformatted text preview: 12-carbon fatty acid using acetyl CoA as the starting material? How many NADPH are needed? If you use glucose as a starting material, how many ATPs are needed? How many glucose molecules are needed? You should be able to trace labeled carbon or hydrogen during fatty acid biosynthesis. For example, if you use labeled CO2, mixed with fatty acid synthase complex and acetate to make a 16-carbon fatty acid, where will the label be? If you add labeled acetyl-CoA to liver extracts, where will the label be in fatty acid (16-Carbon) If you add a trace amount acetyl CoA in the presence of large excess of malonyl-CoA, where will be the label in a 16-carbon fatty acid? If you use labeled glucose (label Carbon 3), where the label will be in fatty acids? Know the cellular locations of fatty acid catabolism and anabolism. Know how acetyl group is shuttled between mitochondria and cytosol (know the details of the shuttle intermediates)...
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