Thermal-Spray Coatings for Steel

Thermal-Spray Coatings for Steel - Chapter 4.4...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4.4 Thermal-Spray (Metallized) Coatings for Steel Robert A. Sulit Introduction Thermal-spray coatings (TSCs) are used extensively for the corrosion protection of steel and iron in a wide range of environments. The corrosion tests carried out by the American Welding Society and the 34 and 44 year marine-atmosphere performance reports of the LaQue Center for Corrosion Technology confirm the effectiveness of flame-sprayed aluminum and zinc coatings over long periods of time in a wide range of hostile environments.1, 2, 3 The British Standards Institution code of practice for the corrosion protection of steel specifies that only TSCs give protection greater than 20 years to first maintenance for the 19 industrial and marine environments considered and that only sealed, sprayed aluminum or zinc gives such protection in sea water immersion or splash zones.4 In Federal Highway Administration laboratory and field trials of low VOC coatings for the protection of steel bridges, 85/15 Zn/Al, 99.9 Zn, and 99.9 Al TSCs demonstrated the best corrosion performance among 34 coating systems. Metallized coatings have zero VOC. Conclusions are based on 6.5-yr. panel testing in a severe marine exposure site and 5-yr panel testing on three bridges in different but severe corrosion environments.5 The 85/15 Zn/Al over SSPC 10/NACE 2 near-white metal blast is estimated to reach 5-15% degradation in a severe marine environment in 30 years. The current industry standard for the application of TSCs is SSPC CS 23.00, Specification for the and deposited to form a laminar TSC on a prepared substrate (Figure 1a). Figure 1a. Thermal spraying. Application of Thermal Spray Coatings (Metallizing) of Aluminum, Zinc and Their Alloys and Composites for the Corrosion Protection of Steel.6 The qualifications for metallizing contractors are specified in the SSPCQP series of qualification procedures for coating contractors.7 Fig. 1b. Arc spraying 85/15 on the interior of a 7 ft. diam. pipe over the Missouri River in Montana. Courtesy Montana Dept. of Natural Resources and Conservation Thermal Spraying Thermal spraying is a group of processes in which the thermal-spray feedstock material is heated, atomized, and propelled by a conveying gas stream The material used may be in the form of a powder or wire. The thermal spray gun generates the necessary heat by using combustible gases or an electric arc. As the materials are heated, they are changed to a plastic or molten state, atomized, confined, and accelerated by a compressed gas stream to the substrate. The Figure 2. Typical arc-spray installation. particles strike the substrate, flatten, and form thin platelets (splats) that conform and adhere to the irregularities of the prepared substrate and to each other. Electric Arc Spraying TSCs of zinc, aluminum, or their alloys, are used infrastructure corrosion-control applications, primarily applied by the electric arc thermal-spray process. Arc spraying production rates are 3 to 5 times faster than flame spraying concomitant with less energy cost. In the arc-wire process, two consumable wire electrodes that are insulated from each other automatically advance to meet at a point in an atomizing gas stream. A potential difference of 18 to 40 volts applied across the wires starts an arc that melts the tips of the wire electrodes. An atomizing gas stream, usually compressed air, is directed the arc zone, shearing off molten droplets that form the atomized spray. The arc spray system is shown in Figure 2. Wire electrodes are fed through wire guides and into the contact tips. The atomizing nozzle conducts the compressed air and directs it across the arc zone. Insulated power cables connect the gun to the DC power source. Arc guns also include mechanisms for feeding the wire at a controlled rate. Contact tips are sized for a particular wire diameter. A trigger switch on the gun controls the wire feed, compressed air supply, and electric power. During the melting cycle, the feed wire is super heated to the point where some volatil- ization may occur. The high particle temperatures produce metallurgical interactions and/or diffusion zones after impact with the substrate. These localized reactions form minute weld spots with good cohesive and adhesive strengths. Safety Potential thermal-spraying hazards include exposure to vapors, metal dust, fumes, gases, noise, and arc ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Uncontrolled metal dust is an explosion and inhalation hazard. Improperly used thermal-spray equipment can create potential fire and explosion hazards from the fuel gases and a potential electrical shock hazard from the electrical and electronic equipment and charged wire spools. Follow proper safety precautions to minimize hazards. Operators must comply with the procedures in the safety references, the manufacturer’s technical information, and Material Safety Data Sheets. A summary of thermal-spray safety information may be found in SSPC CS 23.00A, Part B: Guide 8. Thermal-Spray Coatings (TSCs) for the Corrosion Protection of Steel Aluminum, zinc, and their alloys provide both barrier and galvanic protection; barrier protection when applied in non-through-porosity thickness, galvanic protection when applied in a through-porosity thickness. Zinc’s greater chemical activity provides greater galvanic protection than aluminum. Aluminum’s lower 236 Table 1. Estimated Service Life of Aluminum TSCs. Table 2. Estimated Service Life of Zinc and 85/15 Zn/Al-Alloy TSCs. 237 Table 3a. Predicted Service Life for Selected Thermal Spray Applications(A). chemical activity, adherent oxide film, and higher wear and temperature resistance as compared to zinc, provides longer term protection along with hightemperature and abrasion/wear resistance. When zinc is alloyed with aluminum, the zincrich spray material forms an effective corrosionresistant coating, having the attributes of both elemental components. 85/15 Zn/Al alloy and pseudo Al-Zn alloy, produced by arc spraying Al and Zn wires, can be used to maximize their alloy performance over their individual performance. In this case, the corrosion resistance of zinc is combined with the severeenvironment and high-temperature resistance of aluminum. When cut to expose the substrate steel, or when applied in a through-porosity thickness, these TSCs will retard corrosion through cathodic protection. Selecting TSCs The selection of TSCs should be based on the service environment and the desired service life: Table 1 illustrates the service life for aluminum TSCs and Table 2 the service life for zinc and zinc/aluminum alloys.9 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has experience with 85-15 zinc-aluminum alloy coating (0.016 in. [400 mm]) providing 10 years of service in very turbulent ice- and debris-laden water.10 Table 3a shows typical service lives of paint coatings and predicted service life of TSCs for selected USACE applications. Sealing and Topcoating TSCs TSCs of aluminum, zinc, and their alloys have porosity ranging up to 15%. Interconnected porosity will extend from the surface to the substrate when the TSC is applied at less than a non-through porosity thickness. Sealing fills the porosity extending the service life of the TSC. Sealing is accomplished by applying thin sealer coatings that will penetrate into and are absorbed into the pores of the TSC or naturally by the oxidation of the sprayed aluminum or zinc filling the pores with a tightly adherent oxide layer. The seal coat must be applied before significant natural oxidation occurs to be effective. The pigment particle size for colored sealers must be small enough to flow easily into the pores of the TSC, nominally a 5fineness grind per ASTM D 1210.11 For service temperatures > 250oF [120oC], a high-temperature resistant coating such as an aluminum pigmented silicone sealer is required. Sealed TSCs are preferable to topcoated TSCs. Sealed TSCs should be topcoated only when: (1) the environment is very acidic or very alkaline, i.e., when pH is outside the range of 5 to 12 for zinc and zinc alloy TSCs or 4 to 9 for aluminum and 90/10 MMC TSCs; (2) the metal is subject to direct attack by specific chemicals; (3) the required decorative finish 238 can be obtained only with a topcoat; and (4) when additional abrasion resistance is required. Topcoat materials must be compatible with the TSC material, sealer, and the intended service environment. Never topcoat an unsealed TSC. Examples There is a history of aluminum and zinc TSC corrosion protection for structural steel work: buildings, bridges, towers, radio and TV antenna masts, steel gantry structures, high-power search radar aerials, overhead walkways, railroad overhead line support columns, electrification masts, tower cranes, traffic island posts, and street and bridge railings. Zinc TSCs complement hot-dip galvanizing and should be considered when fabrications are excessively large or otherwise cannot be hot-dip galvanized. Zinc TSC should also be considered for repairing galvanized coating damaged during the fabrication process (e.g., welding, cutting and joining areas) and for maintenance recoating. Here, a zinc TSC is particularly advantageous because it ensures the uniformity and reproducibility of the galvanized coating thickness. Wellhead valve assemblies, for offshore use, have been thermal-spray coated for salt atmosphere protection since the 1950s. Aluminum TSCs are used for high-temperature corrosion protection of flare stacks. Aluminum and zinc TSCs have been used for external protection of oil and propane gas storage tanks. TSCs have been used to protect pipelines against many environments. Pile couplings, valves, sewer covers, industrial gas bottles, and other small industrial items are candidates for TSCs. The interior of steel hopper rail cars for hauling coal have been sprayed with aluminum for sulfuric-acid corrosion protection and with aluminum composite for both corrosion and abrasion protection. Steel car exteriors have been sprayed with zinc for atmosphericcorrosion protection. Zinc TSCs are used to protect potable water pipelines and storage tanks as specified in ANSI/ AWWA D-102-78, American Water Works Association Standard for Painting Water-Storage Tanks.12 Aluminum and zinc TSCs are used on sluice gates in irrigation systems and canal lock gates in shipping canals. Sealed aluminum and zinc TSCs improve the corrosion resistance of steel bridgework and railings subjected to marine and de-icing salts. Reinforcing steel in concrete can be zinc sprayed to retard corrosion. Reinforced concrete bridges and highways, especially in those in marine and freezing environments where de-icing salts are used, commonly suffer from chloride intrusion into the concrete followed by reinforcing steel corrosion and concrete spalling. Zinc TSCs are used for reinforcing steel protection prior to pouring the concrete. Zinc TSCs are sprayed directly on bridge concrete substructures to provide a sacrificial protection coating or to be a secondary anode when electrically connected to an impressed current cathodic protection system. In marine applications, ship structural areas and components are preserved with aluminum and zinc TSCs. The U.S. Navy uses aluminum TSCs in new ship construction and in the overhaul, repair, and maintenance of ship structures and for a wide range of shipboard components, especially those in topside and wet spaces.13 The British, Australian, and New Zealand Navies use a duplex zinc (base) and aluminum (top) TSC system. Commercial shipping and barges have used TSCs to preserve ship superstructures and a range of topside and interior components. TSC Cost This section contrasts paint and TSCs based on cost and expected service life.10 Both paint and TSCs may be used to provide corrosion protection. The use of TSCs is preferred on the basis of fitnessfor-purpose for a few specific applications including corrosion protection in very turbulent ice- and debrisladen water, high-temperature applications, and zebramussel resistance. TSCs may also be selected because of restrictive air pollution regulations that do not allow the use of some paint with excessive VOC emissions. For all other applications the choice between thermal spray and paint coatings should be based on cost. Whenever possible, coating selection should be based on life cycle cost. Because of their somewhat higher first cost, TSCs are often overlooked. To calculate life cycle costs the installed cost of the coating system and its expected service life must be known. Life-cycle costs for coating systems are readily compared by calculating the average equivalent annual cost (AEAC) for each system under consideration. The basic installed cost of a TSC system is 239 Table 3b. Stepwise Procedure. calculated by adding the costs for surface preparation, materials, consumables, and thermal spray application. The cost of surface preparation is well known. The cost of time, materials, and consumables may be calculated using the “stepwise” procedure shown in Table 3b. Table 4. Deposit Efficiency of Thermal Spray Processes. etry and surface considerations in the structural design and during fabrication/assembly, accessibility for surface preparation, coating application, and in-service maintenance and repair. Design guidance documents suitable for thermal-spray systems are listed in the reference section.4, 10, 14, 15 Process Standards There are two thermal-spray process standards for the corrosion protection of steel in the U.S. and one ISO standard. These are also listed in the reference section.6, 13, 16 Inspecting Thermal-Spray Coatings Inspection Requirements The requirements and methods for inspection of thermal-spray coatings should be considered during the initial design and implemented/updated during the fabrication and assembly of steel structures and their components. The TSC system requirements for initial application and in-service performance should be established to parallel to other inspection requirements. Inspection should be based on inspecting and documenting the major planning, production, and maintenance and repair actions for the life-cycle support of the structural and components of the TSC system. The flow chart (Figure 3) shows the key thermal-spray inspection events for a project. The construction and initial application phase includes the Other factors that increase the cost of thermalspray and other coating jobs include the costs of containment, inspection, rigging, mobilization, waste storage, and worker health and safety. Design Guidance and Process Standards Design Guidance Applying TSCs for the protection of steel structures and components requires comparable design considerations as that for high-performance paint-coating systems, i.e., material selection, geom- 240 Figure 3. Flow chart of the key inspection TSC events for a project. 241 Table 5. Inspection Requirements. application process and quality-control checkpoints detailed in SSPC CS 23.00.6 It is important to note that the TSC procurement contract or the job order must specify the inspection requirements, i.e., the acceptable parameters and measurement methods per Table 1 of SSPC CS 23.00. If inspection requirements and methods are not specified, the inspection and corrective action for deficiencies cannot be contractually binding on the applicator. Design Phase Establish TSC system requirements and inspection acceptance tests comparable to Table 6 in SSPC CS 23.00. The design engineer, in the contract, should define the TSC specifications, application process, and inspection and acceptance requirements. The contract specifications should be based and balanced (traded off) with the project engineering requirements, and construction schedule on a lifecycle basis. The design should specify the key (mandatory) inspection items, acceptance values, and their sequence in the construction, overhaul, or repair schedule. The thermal-spray inspection actions should also be integrated into the overall project inspection schedule. Construction Phase During the construction phase, the key inspection events include surface preparation, thermal-spray equipment setup, TSC application, and sealing or sealing and topcoating. The in-process QC checkpoints are those cited in SSPC CS 23.00.6 In-Service Establish the TSC in-service inspection actions and schedule to conform to the anticipated wear and degradation for the service environments and wear/abrasion duty cycles. The TSC inspection should be harmonized with other project inspection requirements to minimize inspection time and resources. Refer to SSPC-PA Guide No. 5, Guide to Maintenance Painting Programs, for additional information.17 Repair TSCs per ANSI/AWS C2.18, Guide for the Protection of Steel with Thermal Sprayed Coatings of Aluminum and Zinc and Their Alloys and Composites.8 TSC System Requirements and Application Process Proper surface preparation is mandatory to the successful application of a TSC. Accordingly, if separate contractors perform the surface preparation and thermal spraying, the suitability of the surface preparation should be approved by the TSC applicator. The procurement contract should account for this interaction among the owner’s inspector and the surfacepreparation and thermal-spraying contractors. The major production and QC activities shown in Figure 4 are taken from SSPC CS 23.00.6 The applicable Section and Quality Control Checkpoint (QCCP) numbers are noted in the lower right-hand corner of each process action. A summary of the key production step follows. Surface Preparation The steel substrate should be prepared to (1) white metal finish, SSPC-SP 5/NACE 1, for marine and immersion service, or (2) the minimum of nearwhite metal finish, SSPC-SP 10/NACE 2, for other service applications. The steel substrate shall have, at a minimum, an angular profile depth ≥ 63 mm (2.5 mils) with a sharp angular shape. There is currently no standard method for measuring the angularity of the blast profile. However, a “metallographic examination of a successful bend coupon” can be used to evaluate the angularity suitability of the blast. The profile depth shall be measured according 242 Table 6. TSC System Requirements and Acceptance Tests. 243 Figure 4. Key production and quality control checkpoints (QCCPs) for applying thermal-spray coatings. to ASTM D 4417, Method C (replica tape, x-coarse, 38 to 113 mm [1.5 to 4.5 mils]), or Method B (profile depth gauge), or both.18 Use clean dry angular blasting media. Mineral and slag abrasives shall be selected and evaluated according to SSPC-AB 1, steel grit to SSPC AB-3.19, 20 Table 7 lists the blasting media and mesh size found suitable for TSCs on steel substrates. TSC Requirements 10 cm2 (1.6 in.2). The spot measurement may not measure the peaks and valleys of the TSC. Feedstock and TSC Thickness. The TSC feedstock material and thickness should be selected according to intended service environment and service life. The minimum and maximum TSC thickness shall be measured in accordance with SSPC-PA 2.21 Figure 5. Line and spot measurement procedures. (1) For flat surfaces a measurement line shall be used. The average value of five readings taken in line at 1.0-in. (2.5-cm) intervals shall be determined. The line measurement measures the peaks and valleys of the TSC. (2) For complex geometries and geometry transitions a measurement spot shall be used. The measurement spot should have an area of approximately Portable TSC Tensile Bond Instrument and Measurement. The TSC tensile bond shall be measured according to ASTM D 4541 using a self-aligning portable adhesion test instrument or equivalent. The minimum TSC tensile bond value may be specified according to Table 8. Higher values may be specified. One portable tensile-bond measurement shall 244 Table 7. Blasting Media and Mesh Size Found Suitable for TSCs on Steel Substrates. be made about every 500 ft2 (50 m2). If the tensile bond is less than the contract specification, the degraded TSC shall be removed and reapplied. For nondestructive measurement, tensile force shall be measured to the contract-specified tensile. The tensile force shall then be reduced and the tensile fixture removed without damaging the TSC. Bend Test. The bend test (180o bend on a mandrel) is used as a qualitative “system test” for the proper surface preparation, equipment setup, and spray parameters. The bend test puts the TSC in tension. The mandrel diameter for the threshold of cracking depends on substrate thickness, coating thickness, and mandrel diameter. Table 8. Minimum Tensile-Bond Requirements (per ASTM D 4514 using a self-aligning portable test instrument). (b) Surface preparation per contract specification. (c) Spray 7-12 mils [200-250 mm] thick TSC. The TSC should be sprayed in crossing passes laying down approximately 3-4 mils [75-100 mm] per pass. (d) Bend coupons 180˚around a 0.5-in. [13-mm] diameter mandrel. (2) Bend test passes if, on the bend-radius (see Figure 6), there is (a) no cracking or spalling or (b) only minor cracking that cannot be lifted from the substrate with a knife blade. (3) Bend test fails if the coating cracks with lifting from the substrate. Table 9. Bend-Test Cracking Threshold: Mandrel Diameter vs. Zn TSC Thickness. TSC Cut Test. The TSC cut test should consist of a single cut 1.5-in [40-mm] long through the TSC to the substrate without severely cutting into the substrate. All cuts should be made with sharp edge tools. The chisel cut should be made at a shallow angle. The bond should be considered unsatisfactory if any part of the TSC along the cut lifts from the substrate. Bend-Test Procedure for TSC Thickness Range 712 mils [175-350 mm]. (1) Spray five corrosion-control bend coupons and pass the following bend test: (a) Use a carbon steel coupons of approximate dimensions 2 x 4 to 8 x 0.05 in. [50 x 100 to 200 x 1.25 mm]. TSC Finish. The deposited TSC shall be uniform without blisters, cracks, loose particles, or exposed steel as examined with a 10x loupe. TSC Porosity. If required by the purchaser, the 245 maximum allowable porosity and the metallographic measurement method to be used for the evaluation shall be specified. Note: Porosity measurements are not used for in-process quality control in metallizing for corrosion protection of steel. However, porosity measurements may be used to qualify thermal-spray application processes and spray parameters. contracted work. (2) The JRS shall be made in representative environmental conditions spraying with or without enclosure as appropriate. (3) Thickness and tensile-bond measurements shall be made according to Figure 8. The JRS is unsatisfactory if any measurements are less than the contract-specified value. (4) The JRS is used as a pass/fail reference for the applicator’s in-process QC and the purchaser’s inspector. (5) The preparation and the use of the JRS for inprocess QC and the inspector’s pass/fail reference standard should be agreeable to both the purchaser and TSCA. Figure 6. TSC bend test: pass and fail examples. TSC QC Measurement Procedures and Instruments. The suitability of the TSC thickness, portable tensile bond, bend test, and cut-test measurement procedures and instruments shall be validated during the contract pre-award validation. Job Reference Standard (JRS). The JRS is a job site pass/fail reference standard representative of the whole job or major sections of the job. The JRS is should be prepared by the TSCA at the pre-award job conference to demonstrate and validate the TSCA’s surface-preparation and thermal-spray application processes. The JRS should be used as a “comparator” to evaluate the suitability of the application process. Figure 7 illustrates the configuration of a JRS. The JRS shall be made on a steel plate approximately 18 x 18 x 0.25 in. (46 x 46 x 0.60 cm). Note: For structural steel, the reference standard does not need to be more than 0.25 in. (0.60 cm) thick because steel does not thermally distort when TSC is applied. When the actual work is less than 0.25 in. (0.60 cm) thick, the JRS should be made from material of a thickness representative of the job. (1) The JRS shall be made with the actual field equipment and the process parameters and procedures (surface preparation; thermal spraying; sealing or sealing and topcoating; and the inprocess QC checkpoints) that shall be used for the Figure 7. Job reference standard configuration (JRS). Job Control Record (JCR). SSPC CS 23.00A, Part A: Specification, presents a JCR that covers the essential job information. The JCR lists information on the TSCA, the purchaser, TSC requirements, safety precautions, surface preparation and abrasive blasting media requirements, flame- and arc-spray equipment and spraying procedures and parameters. The JCR also lists the 11 production steps and their check-offs. The check-off list may be used as part of the inspection procedure. Thermal-Spray Coating Applicator (TSCA) Qualification There is one published and one standard in preparation for the qualification of TSCA: (1) ASTM D 4228-95, Standard Practice for Qualifica- tion of Coating Application of Coatings for Steel Surfaces provides a standard qualifying method for coating applicators to verify their proficiency and ability to attain the required quality for 246 Figure 8. Thickness and tensile-bond measurements for JRS qualification. 247 Table 10. Recommended Personnel Qualification Requirements & Minimum Required Experience per SSPC-QP 6. application of specified coatings to steel surfaces including those in a safety-related area in a nuclear facility. (2) SSPC-QP 6, Standard Procedure for Evaluating Qualifications of Thermal-Spray (Metallizing) Applicators, (in preparation) describes a method for evaluating the qualification of thermal-spray (metallizing) applicators (or firms) to apply thermal-spray coatings in accordance with SSPC CS 23.00. Requirements and auditing criteria are included for the surface preparation, thermal spraying, and sealing or sealing and topcoating of components/assemblies in the shop and complex structures in the field. This procedure is applicable to a fabricating shop, shipyard, or other entity that applies coatings in the shop, even though providing coating application services is not the primary function. TSCA must have equipment, materials, and application and in-process QC procedures to meet SSPC CS 23.00. Table 10 lists the personnel qualification requirements and minimum required experience. specifications. (3) Be knowledgeable of and skilled in using inspection equipment to measure and validate the TSCA’s conformance to the purchasing contract. (4) Submit timely oral and written reports to the purchaser. More information is also found in SSPC’s The Inspection of Coatings and Linings: Handbook of Basic Practices for Inspectors, Owners, and Specifiers.22 Summary Thermal-spray coatings are used for the corrosion protection of steel and iron in a wide range of environments. TSCs of zinc, aluminum, or their alloys are used for infrastructure corrosion-control applications and are primarily applied by the electric arc thermal-spray process. The current industry standard for the application of TSCs is SSPC CS 23.00.6 The qualifications for metallizing contractors are specified in the SSPC-QP series of qualification procedures for coating contractors.7 TSC Inspector Qualification The TSC inspector is a person who is knowledgeable about the concepts and principles of TSC and skilled in observing and measuring conformance to SSPC CS 23. The TSC inspector, at a minimum, should: (1) Meet the knowledge requirements of a qualified thermal-spray operator. (2) Be skilled in observing and evaluating conformance of the application process to the contract References 1. Corrosion Tests of Flame-Sprayed Coated Steel:19Year Report; American Welding Society: Miami, FL. 2. Kain, R.M.; Baker, E.A. ASTM STP 947. Marine Atmospheric Corrosion Museum Report on the Performance of Thermal-Spray Coatings on Steel; ASTM: West Conshohocken, PA. 3. Pikul, S.J. Appearance of Thermal-Sprayed Coat- ings After 44 Years Marine Atmospheric Exposure at Kure Beach, North Carolina; LaQue Center for Corro248 sion Technology, Inc., February 1966. 4. B.S. 5493. British Standard Code of Practice for Maintenance Painting Programs; SSPC: Pittsburgh. 18. ASTM D 4417. Standard Test Methods for Field Protective Coatings of Iron and Steel Structures Against Corrosion; British Standards Institution/ASTM: New York, 1977. 5. Kogler, R.A; Ault, J.F.; Farachon, C.L. FHWA-RD09-058. Environmentally Acceptable Materials for the Corrosion Protection of Steel Bridges; Federal Highway Administration: Washington, D.C., 1997. 6. SSPC CS 23.00. Specification for the Application of Thermal Spray Coatings (Metallizing) of Aluminum, Zinc, and Their Alloys and Composites for the Corrosion Protection of Steel; SSPC: Pittsburgh. 7. Qualification Procedures. In Steel Structures Measurement of Surface Profile of Blast Cleaned Steel; ASTM: West Conshohocken, PA. 19. SSPC-AB 1. Mineral and Slag Abrasives; SSPC: Pittsburgh. 20. SSPC-AB 3. Newly Manufactured or Re-Manufactured Steel Abrasives; SSPC: Pittsburgh. 22. The Inspection of Coatings and Linings; Bernard R. Appleman, ed.; SSPC: Pittsburgh, 1997. About the Author Robert A. Sulit Robert A. Sulit has been involved with thermal-spray technology since 1977 in the areas of shipboard corrosion control, naval machinery repair, and the design/installation/operation of mobile/fixed corrosion control shops. Chair of SSPC’s thermal-spray committee and the AWS/SSPC/NACE committee for corrosion protection of steel, he has authored or coauthored more than 110 technical papers and reports and one book, Principles of Radiation and Contamination Control. Mr. Sulit is a former recipient of the SSPC Technical Achievement Award (2000) and several other industry honors. Painting Manual: Volume 2—Systems and Specifications; SSPC: Pittsburgh. 8. AWS C2-18A, NACE RPX-2002, and SSPC CS 23.00A. Application of Thermal-Spray Coatings (Metallizing) of Aluminum, Zinc, and Their Alloys and Composites for the Corrosion Protection of Steel—Part B: Guide, Draft #2, 2001-10-19. 9. ANSI/AWS C2.18. Guide for the Protection of Steel with Thermal Sprayed Coatings of Aluminum and Zinc and Their Alloys and Composites; ANSI: New York. 10. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Engineering Manual EM 1110-2-3401 Engineering and Design. Thermal Spraying: New Construction and Maintenance; 29 January 1999. 11. ASTM D 1210. Test Method for Fineness of Dispersion of Pigment-Vehicle Systems; ASTM: West Conshohocken, PA. 12. ANSI/AWWA D-102-78. American Water Works Association Standard for Painting Water-Storage Tanks. AWWA/ANSI: New York. 13. MIL-STD-2138A(SH). Metal Sprayed Coatings for Corrosion Protection Aboard Naval Ships. 14. Steel Structures Painting Manual: Volume 1— Good Painting Practice; SSPC: Pittsburgh, 2002. 15. NACE Standard RP0187-89. Standard Recommended Practice—Fabrication Details, Surface Finish Requirements, and Proper Design Considerations for Tank and Vessels to be Lined for Immersion Service; NACE: Houston. 16. ISO 2063:1999. Metallic and Other Organic Coatings—Thermal Spraying: Zinc, Aluminum, and Their Alloys. 17. SSPC-PA Paint Application Guide No. 5. Guide to 249 ...
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