Module 04 Notes A&p 1.docx - Module 04 Muscular System Muscle Tissue Muscular System Functions \u2022 Movement of bones and fluids(e.g blood \u2022

Module 04 Notes A&p 1.docx - Module 04 Muscular System...

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Module 04 - Muscular System Muscle Tissue Muscular System: Functions Movement of bones and fluids (e.g., blood) Maintaining posture and body position Stabilization joints Heat generation (especially skeletal muscle) Muscle Tissue: Characteristics Excitability: ability to receive and respond to stimuli Contractility: ability to shorten when stimulated Extensibility: ability to be stretched Elasticity: ability to recoil to resting length Muscle Tissue: Categories Skeletal Muscle Attached to the skeletal system Striated (visibly stipped) appearance and under voluntary (Takes thought) control Cardiac Muscle Found in the heart Striated appearance and under unconscious/involuntary (On its own) control Smooth Muscle Found primarily within internal organs Not striated and under unconscious/involuntary Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Tendon- Attaches a muscle to a bone. It’s tough, fibrous connective tissue band that is capable of withstanding a great deal of tension. Fascia- thin protective connective covering that surrounds the entire muscle and is continuous with the tendon. Skeletal Muscle Smooth Muscle Cardiac Muscle
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Epimysium- Underneath the fascia, there is a protective covering that surrounds an entire skeletal muscle Perimysium- connective tissue covering that bundles a number of muscle cells together which is called a fascicle Fascicles- a bundle or group of muscle cells that are surrounded by the perimysium. Endomysium- Fascicles contain a group of individual muscle cells where the individual muscle cells are surround by and separated from one another by the endomysium. Muscle cell (fiber)- muscle cell and muscle fiber are used interchangeable and refer to one muscle cell. Skeletal Tissue: Overview Muscle cell and muscle fiber used interchangeable To understand muscle physiology, vital to understand muscle anatomy Muscle fibers are long cylindrical shaped cells Have multiple nuclei Majority of cell filled with myofibrils (protein filaments) Skeletal Muscle Fiber Sarcolemma Sarcoplasmic reticulum Nuclei Mitochondria T-tubules Myofibrils Myofibrils contain specialized proteins referred to as myofilaments: Thick filament Thin filament
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Arranged in SACROMERES Unique arrangement to allow for muscle contraction to occur Sarcomere From Z line to Z line Arrangement of thick and thin filaments Causes striated appearance Contractile unit of muscle Skeletal Muscle Fiber: Thick Filament One thick filament is made up of 200-500 molecules of a protein called MYOSIN Contains myosin head Attaches to thin filament Skeletal Muscle Fiber: Thin Filament Composed of three different types of protein: Actin Protein Contains the “active site” where the head of the thick filament binds to Tropomyosin Protein Blocks the “active site” on actin when the muscle is relaxed Means myosin (thick filament) cannot bind; no contraction Troponin Protein Sits on the tropomyosin protein; and will determine its position - will
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