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EMon08MW - Thermodynamics CH 3510 Monday September 8 Law of...

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1 Thermodynamics CH 3510 Monday September 8 Law of Corresponding States Introduction to the FLOT
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2 The Equation We said the pressure predicted by the ideal gas equation is too high because of attractive forces and the volume is too low because of molecule size. To make the ideal gas equation more accurate we can include two terms: ( 29 nRT nb V V an P = - + ) 2 2 a is the proportionality constant for the attractive force term. b is a measure of the excluded volume and is dependent on the amount of gas n. It should be emphasized that the constants a and b are empirical. When V is large, the equation becomes PV = nRT
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3 “So what difference does it make?” “William, it was really nothing” The Smiths If 1 mole of methane occupies 250 mL at 0 °C what is the pressure? (a = 0.2273 Pa m 6 mol -2 , b = 4.307 x 10 -5 m 3 mol -1 ) ( 29 Pa 10 33 . 7 10 64 . 3 10 0969 . 1 10 25 . 0 2273 . 0 10 307 . 4 10 25 . 0 273 314 . 8 6 6 7 2 3 5 3 2 × = × - × = × - × - × × = - - = - - - P V a b V RT P Pa 10 08 . 9 10 25 . 0 273 314 . 8 6 3 × = × × = = - V nRT P Ideal gas van der Waals
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4 The Critical Point Thomas Andrews (1813-1885) investigated the liquefaction of gases. He determined that there was a temperature above which a gas could not be liquefied. Increasing the pressure does not liquefy the gas. Experimentally it is observed that the boundary between the gas and the liquid disappears. The state of matter is called a super critical fluid. On the next slide you can see that at this temperature there is a point of inflection in the PV curve.
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Experimental Isotherms for Carbon Dioxide These lines are called isotherms In the blue shaded region gas and liquid coexist with each other. At any point outside of this region
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This note was uploaded on 03/17/2010 for the course CH 3530 taught by Professor Consors during the Fall '10 term at WPI.

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EMon08MW - Thermodynamics CH 3510 Monday September 8 Law of...

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