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FTueSep09

# FTueSep09 - Thermodynamics Second most climbed mountain in...

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1 Thermodynamics Second most climbed mountain in the world

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2 Systems Energy Matter Open System Closed System Isolated System Energy Matter Energy Matter
3 Definitions Work has been done by the system if a weight is raised in the surroundings. Work has been done on the system if a weight is lowered by the result of process in the system. The energy of a system is its ability to do work. When work is done on an otherwise isolated system its capacity to so work is increased. The energy of a system may also be changed by the transfer of heat.

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4 Boundaries and Processes Walls that permit the transfer of heat are called diathermic . Walls that do not permit the transfer of heat are called adiabatic . A process that releases energy as heat is called exothermic . Processes that absorb energy as heat are called endothermic .
5 Example An endothermic process in a diathermic container that is maintained at a constant temperature results in energy flowing into the system. An exothermic process under the same conditions results in energy flowing into the surroundings. An endothermic process that takes place in an adiabatic container results in a lowering of the temperature in the system. An exothermic process that takes place in the same container results in a temperature increase in the system.

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6 First Law 1) Energy cannot be created or destroyed 2) The total energy of an isolated system is constant 3) The sum of all the energy changes for all systems participating in a process must be zero 4) It is impossible to create a perpetual motion machine of the first kind (one that creates energy from nothing) 5) If work is produced during a cyclic process an equivalent quantity of heat must be consumed. 6) The work needed to change an adiabatic system from one specified state to another is the same however the work is done.
7 First Law of Thermodynamics Energy cannot be created or destroyed but can only be converted into other forms. http://vids.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=vids

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8 The Sign Convention Consider two cases: No work done If heat is added to the system q is +ve, U is +ve If heat is lost by the system q is – ve, U is – ve No heat transferred If work is done on the system w is +ve, U is +ve If work is done by the system w is – ve, U is – ve
9 State Functions State function : a property of a system that is not dependent on the way in which the system gets to the state in which it exhibits that property.

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