MTueSep23

MTueSep23 - Thermodynamics...

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1 Thermodynamics www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ut1kGmOhzWQ
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2 The Second Law of Thermodynamics Things happen! The second law is concerned with explaining the driving force of physical and chemical change. Hydrogen and oxygen will explode violently to produce water, the reverse process does not take place unless a great deal of energy is supplied. A piece of magnesium in a beaker of acid dissolves, if we eat food we can do work. These processes are spontaneous. The change in energy alone is not sufficient to determine the direction of a spontaneous process
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3 Spontaneity Both the forward and the reverse steps occur in accordance with the first law of thermodynamics. But there is obviously some driving force that makes the reaction go in the forward direction. There is, by the way, a huge difference between the phrase spontaneous and instantaneous. One says which way something will go and the other how fast. Thermodynamics can only tell us about the direction.
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4 The first four steps of glycolysis …………. (http://www.rpi.edu/dept/bcbp/molbiochem/MBWeb/mb1/part2/glycolysis.htm)
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5 Heat and Work Work can be converted completely into heat but the opposite is not true. Heat cannot be converted completely into work.
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6 The Second Law of Thermodynamics “It is impossible to construct a cyclical engine that will produce no other effect than to extract heat from a reservoir and to convert it into an equivalent amount of work.” A machine that could do this is a perpetual motion machine of the second kind.
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7 Clausius and Thomson
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MTueSep23 - Thermodynamics...

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