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Unformatted text preview: Ryan Paur December 4, 2009 HST 203; Fall 2009 Essay #2; Question # 2: How and why did American ideas of freedom change during the second half of the twentieth century? After the Second World War the United Nations was created by fifty countries as a way to bring peace and freedom to the world. In their efforts they wrote The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, a declaration outlining basic rights. It was written that everyone has the right to any freedom no matter their race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. 1 At the time the declaration was created only Caucasian male citizens had the freedoms outlined in the Declaration. Americans had many social conflicts. In next fifty years political groups and the government would shape the American ideas of freedom to reflect parts of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Since Americas beginning there was a struggle for African American equality, and in the 1950s and 1960s more citizens supported the movement. In rebuttal to the Supreme Courts decision to end segregation, a group of states in the south wrote a document called the Southern Manifesto. The Southern Manifesto explained that the constitution did not specify segregation as being unequal making it constitutionally moral. It argued that under the 14 th Amendment no one is denied their rights if the states provided separate but equal public facilities. 2 Less than one fourth of the House signed the Southern Manifesto, showing a decline of racism in Congress. 1 1 The General Assembly Proclaims, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights , Seagull Edition (1948), 68 2 2 The Southern Manifesto, 1957 Still it was a struggle to spread the idea of equality to everyone because some people had strong...
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