mse02 - CHAPTER 2: BONDING AND PROPERTIES ISSUES TO...

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1 1 Chapter 2 - ISSUES TO ADDRESS. .. • What promotes bonding? • What types of bonds are there? • What properties are inferred from bonding? CHAPTER 2: BONDING AND PROPERTIES 2 Chapter 2 - Atomic Structure (Freshman Chem.) •a t om electrons – 9.11 x 10 -31 kg protons neutrons • atomic number = # of protons in nucleus of atom = # of electrons of neutral species • A [=] atomic mass unit = amu = 1/12 mass of 12 C Atomic wt = wt of 6.023 x 10 23 molecules or atoms 1 amu/atom = 1g/mol C 12.011 H 1.008 etc. } 1.67 x 10 -27 kg
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2 3 Chapter 2 - Atomic Structure • Valence electrons determine all of the following properties 1) Chemical 2) Electrical 3) Thermal 4) Optical 4 Chapter 2 - Electronic Structure • Electrons have wavelike and particulate properties. – This means that electrons are in orbitals defined by a probability. – Each orbital at discrete energy level determined by quantum numbers . Quantum # Designation n = principal (energy level-shell) K , L , M , N , O (1, 2, 3, etc.) l = subsidiary (orbitals) s , p , d , f (0, 1, 2, 3,…, n -1) m l = magnetic 1, 3, 5, 7 (- l to + l ) m s = spin ½, -½
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3 5 Chapter 2 - Electron Energy States 1 s 2 s 2 p K -shell n = 1 L -shell n = 2 3 s 3 p M -shell n = 3 3 d 4 s 4 p 4 d Energy N -shell n = 4 • have discrete energy states • tend to occupy lowest available energy state. Electrons. .. Adapted from Fig. 2.4, Callister 7e. 6 Chapter 2 - • Why? Valence (outer) shell usually not filled completely. • Most elements: Electron configuration not stable . SURVEY OF ELEMENTS Electron configuration (stable) ... ... 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 6 (stable) ... 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 6 3 d 10 4 s 2 4 p 6 (stable) Atomic # 18 ...
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mse02 - CHAPTER 2: BONDING AND PROPERTIES ISSUES TO...

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