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SASBWAWB - Lab Activity Strong Acids Strong Bases Weak...

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Lab Activity: Strong Acids & Strong Bases, Weak Acids & Weak Bases, and the Hydrolysis of Salts Strong acids and strong bases completely ionize in water to make hydronium or hydroxide ions. Because the reactions essentially result in 100% ionization, the [H 3 O + ] and the [OH ] can be calculated directly from the initial concentrations of the acid or base. Consider nitric acid, HNO 3 , and potassium hydroxide, KOH. HNO 3 + H 2 O Æ H 3 O + + NO 3 KOH Æ K + + OH [H 3 O + ] soln = [HNO 3 ] 0 [OH ] soln = [KOH] 0 On the other hand, weak acids and bases do not fully dissociate or ionize when they are in water. The pH of a solution of a weak acid or weak base must be predicted based on their dissociation constants: Ka or Kb. For an acid dissociation, consider hypochlorous acid, HClO. HClO + H 2 O Ù H 3 O + + ClO 2 This reaction does not go to completion, therefore [H 3 O + ] soln [HClO] 0 . Therefore, we must apply the equilibrium condition and use Ka to calculate the [H 3 O + ] of the solution. The pH can then be calculated as the log[H 3 O + ] A weak basic solution, like methylamine will not fully ionize water into hydroxide ions, but instead, an equilibrium is established: CH 3 NH 2 + H 2 O Ù CH 3 NH 3 + + OH The [OH ] soln [CH 3 NH 2 ] 0 . The hydroxide ion concentration must be calculated using K b and the application of the equilibrium condition. The hydronium ion concentration and the pH can then be calculated. Some salts exhibit acidic or basic properties based on the identities of their cations or anions. Other salts are completely neutral when dissolved in water. Consider KNO 3 . When KNO 3 is dissolved in pure water, the pH of the solution will be neutral (7).
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