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CE555 - Chapter 6 - Lecture Notes + disinfection [Compatibility Mode]

CE555 - Chapter 6 - Lecture Notes + disinfection [Compatibility Mode]

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1 Chapter 6: Microbial Growth! Bacterial Cell Division Cell Growth and Binary Fission Growth – an increase in the number of cells. Bacterial cell is capable of replicating itself many times. The main reactions of cell synthesis are polymerization reactions – processes where macromolecules are made from monomers; macromolcules accumulate in the cytoplasm of the cell, they are assembled into new structures (i.e. cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, ribosomes, etc.) Binary fission – growth of an individual cell continues until the cell divides into 2 or more cells. When one cell divides to form two, one generation has occurred.
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2 Part I: Bacterial Cell Division Fts Proteins, Cell Division Plane and Cell Morphology Fts (“filamentous, temperature sensitive” proteins : - essential for cell division. - interact to form a division apparatus in the cell called a divisome . - FtsZ - Figure 6.2 – example for rod-shaped cells. - FtsI – divisome involved in peptidoglycan synthesis. Peptidoglycan Synthesis and Cell Division Before cell division can occur, new cell wall synthesis must take place. New wall material must be added to the preexisting cell wall without loss of New wall material must be added to the preexisting cell wall without loss of structural integrity. Part I: Bacterial Cell Division Peptidoglycan Synthesis and Cell Division (cont’d) Beginning at the FtsZ, small openings in the wall are created by enzymes – autolysins that are present in divisome protein complex. New cell wall is added across the openings. The junction between new and old peptidoglycan forms a ridge on the cell surface. If there is not a good junction or there is a breach – autolysis occurs. - Like in the presence of antibiotics
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3 Supplement: What is needed to grow? Source of energy : light or inorganic substances like sulfur, carbon monoxide or ammonia, or preformed organic matter, like sugar, protein, fats etc.; without energy, life can not exist and quickly dies or becomes inactive. Source of nitrogen : nitrogen gas, ammonia, nitrate/nitrite, or a nitrogenous organic d lik t i l i id compound like protein or nucleic acid. Source of carbon : carbon dioxide or monoxide, methane, or complex organic material. Source of oxygen : all cells use oxygen in a bound form and many require gaseous oxygen (air), but oxygen is lethal to many microbes. Source of phosphorous, sulfur, magnesium, potassium & sodium Source of calcium : most cells require calcium in significant quantities, but some seem to only need it in trace amounts. Source of water: all life requires liquid water in order to grow and reproduce Source of water : all life requires liquid water in order to grow and reproduce. Source of minerals like iron, zinc, or cobalt etc. - trace metals that are required by some enzymes to function.
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