CE555 - Chapter 5 - Lecture Notes [Compatibility Mode]

CE555 - Chapter 5 - Lecture Notes [Compatibility Mode] -...

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1 Chapter 5: Nutrition, Laboratory Culture, and Metabolism of Microorganisms…. Or: how to get energy from the environment via chemistry Nutrition and Culture of Microorganisms •Cells must coordinate different chemical reactions and organize molecules into specific structures (macromolecules) •Collectively, these reactions are called metabolism . •Metabolic reactions either are energy releasing ( catabolism ), •or energy requiring ( anabolism ).
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2 Catabolism : the breakdown of energy sources (chemicals) to produce energy, biosynthesis precursors, and waste products (reduced electron acceptors). How do cells get energy to make compounds, turn flagella, grow, etc? By utilizing chemistry and releasing energy stored in chemical bonds. What cellular processes require energy ? Biosynthesis: Of glucose from CO 2 and H 2 0 by phototrophs Of amino acids Of nucleotides Of lipids Of proteins Of nucleic acids Of membranes Of polysaccharides Active Transport: Of H+ Of food molecules into cell Of Na+ and K+ Motility: Movement of flagella
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3 Nutrition and Culture of Microorganisms Elements required in fairly large amounts are called macronutrients , Metals and organic compounds needed in very small amounts are called micronutrients and growth factors , respectively. All cells require carbon in some form – organic or inorganic. Nitrogen also important and available in both organic or inorganic form; •inorganic form most available (ammonia, NH 3 , N 2 ); •N important in proteins, nucleic acids, etc. Other macronutrients – P, S, K, Mg, Ca, Na Essential Elements Required by All Bacteria: M lt Mi Macro-elements Micro-elements C, O, N, H, P, S, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe Mn, Mo, Cu, Co, B To survive and proliferate, bacteria require water, nutrients, an energy source, and a terminal electron acceptor (TEA).
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4 Group Period 1 6 5 4 3 2 8 9 10 11 12 13 7 14 15 16 17 18 1 5 4 3 2 Key: Unessential, not metabolized Unessential, but metabolized Used for special functions Essential for all microorganisms Essential cations and anions for most microorganisms Trace metals, some essential for some microororganisms 6 Iron plays a major role in cellular respiration, being a key component of cytochromes and iron-sulfur proteins involved in electron transport. To obtain iron from various insoluble minerals, cells produce agents called siderophores that bind iron and transport it into the cell. Iron Chelating Agents produced by Microbes
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5 Part I: Nutrition and Culture of Microorganisms 5.1 Microbial Nutrition (cont’d) micronutrients Part I: Nutrition and Culture of Microorganisms 5.1 Microbial Nutrition (cont’d) growth factors
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6 Part I: Nutrition and Culture of Microorganisms 5.2 Culture Media culture media supply the nutritional needs of microorganisms.
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2010 for the course CE 555 taught by Professor Dr.brion during the Fall '09 term at Kentucky.

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CE555 - Chapter 5 - Lecture Notes [Compatibility Mode] -...

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