CE555 - Chapter 3 - Lecture Notes [Compatibility Mode]

CE555 - Chapter 3 - Lecture Notes [Compatibility Mode] -...

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1 Chapter 3: Macromolecules Part I: Chemical Bonding and Water in Living Systems Part II: Noninformational Macromolecules Part III: Informational Macromolecules Part I: Chemical Bonding and Water in Living Systems Strong and Weak Chemical Bonds all cells use basically the same atoms C – carbon H – hydrogen O – oxygen N – nitrogen S – sulfur P – phosphorous atoms attract/bond to each other in several ways: covalent bonds – sharing electrons , strong bonds that bind elements in macromolecules, important for C bonding key for macromolecule construction relative strengths of some covalent bonds (kcal/mole): H – H 1.0 C – O 0.8 C – H 1.0 C – N 0.7 C – C 0.8 hydrogen bonds – a weaker attractive force between H and other slightly negative parts of a molecu le. compare relative strengths of some covalent bonds (kcal/mole): OH --- O 0.1 NH --- N 0.1
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2 Part I: Chemical Bonding and Water in Living Systems Strong Chemical Bonds Part I: Chemical Bonding and Water in Living Systems Weak Chemical Bonds
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3 Part I: Chemical Bonding and Water in Living Systems Strong and Weak Chemical Bonds atoms attract/bond to each other in several ways: (cont’d) van der Waals forces : very weak, short distance, gets atoms close enough that other bonds form. electron cloud shifts over molecule, causes dipole moment, brings molecules closer together. very important in enzymatic protein and nucleic acid bondings. hydrophobicity – due to the polar nature of water; large dipole moments where electron cloud shifts over O; non-polar molecules cluster together to prevent/limit contact with polar solvent (water); key in membrane formations. functional groups of carbon: Table 3.1
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4 Part I: Chemical Bonding and Water in Living Systems Overview of Macromolecules and Water as the Solvent of Life understanding the relative composition of a bacterial cell helps us to understand the metabolic needs of the organism. ht ’ i l l d f t h t b d? so, what’s in a cell made from these atoms or bonds? macromolecules – polymer of covalently linked monomeric units 4 big groups (dry wt.): proteins – 55% nucleic acids – 24% polysaccharides – 8% lipids – 9% h f th l f l l i b d 6 t f lif each of these classes of macromolecules is based on 6 atoms of life.
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2010 for the course CE 555 taught by Professor Dr.brion during the Fall '09 term at Kentucky.

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CE555 - Chapter 3 - Lecture Notes [Compatibility Mode] -...

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