Chapter 19 - March 15

Chapter 19 - March 15 - 19 Differential Gene Expression in...

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19 Differential Gene Expression in Development
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19 Differential Gene Expression in Development What Are the Processes of Development? Is Cell Differentiation Irreversible? What Is the Role of Gene Expression in Cell Differentiation? How Is Cell Fate Determined? How Does Gene Expression Determine Pattern Formation?
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What Are the Processes of Development? Development : the process in which a multicellular organism undergoes a series of progressive changes that characterizes its life cycle. In its earliest stages, a plant or animal is called an embryo. The embryo can be protected in a seed, an egg shell, or a uterus.
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Stages of Animal Development
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Stages of Plant Development
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What Are the Processes of Development? Four processes of development: Determination sets the fate of the cell. Differentiation phenotypically distinct cells arise. Morphogenesis: differentiated cells shape into organs. Growth is an increase in body size by cell division and cell expansion.
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Determination Cell’s fate , is a function of differential gene expression and morphogenesis. Early embryonic cells have a range of possible fates, but possibilities become more restricted as development proceeds. The extracellular environment, as well as the cell contents, influence the genome and differentiation.
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Determination In vivo – once cell is determined it is committed to differentiating along that path Location within body only matters prior to determination Determination is followed by differentiation Gene expression changes
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Differentiation A zygote is totipotent , it can give rise to every cell type in the adult body. Later in development, the cells lose totipotency and become determined. Determination is followed by differentiation. But most cells retain the entire genome, and have the capacity for totipotency.
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Morphogenesis: Plants: organized division & expansion of cells. Animals: cell movements also important
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Chapter 19 - March 15 - 19 Differential Gene Expression in...

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