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Chapter 12 for Courseweb

Chapter 12 for Courseweb - 12 From DNA to Protein Genotype...

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12 From DNA to Protein: Genotype to Phenotype
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From DNA to Protein: Genotype to Phenotype What Is the Evidence that Genes Code for Proteins? How Does Information Flow from Genes to Proteins? How Is the Information Content in DNA Transcribed to Produce RNA? How Is RNA Translated into Proteins? What Happens to Polypeptides after Translation? What Are Mutations?
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What is a phenotype? Genotype: DNA Phenotype: ? Known before discovery of DNA How does it manifest?
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Experiments to understand nature of phenotype
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Beadle and Tatum’s Experiment 1940s
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One-gene, one enzyme hypothesis Each auxotrophic strain needed a single compound supplement to grow One-gene, one-enzyme hypothesis was proposed Current view: “ one-gene, one-polypeptide”
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The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology The central dogma of molecular biology: information flows in one direction when genes are expressed Transcription Translation Messenger hypothesis mRNA Adapter hypothesis tRNA
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Figure 12.3 From Gene to Protein
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Exceptions to Central Dogma Viruses: Have and use only RNA Retroviruses: Make DNA from RNA Reverse Transcriptase
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What is RNA? RNA: ribonucleic acid Single stranded Sugar is ribose Contains uracil (U) instead of thymine (T)
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Transcription Template strand : copied into mRNA RNA Transcriptase : Enzyme that makes all RNAs (processive catalysis) Transcription occurs in three phases: Initiation Elongation Termination
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