James Review Outline

James Review Outline - Lecture 9 Central Dogma: D A > mR A...

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Lecture 9 Central Dogma: D&A > mR&A > protein Transcription: RNA Polymerase compose of two alpha and beta subunits Sigma factor recruits RNA Polymerase DNA template. Without sigma factor, RNA Polymerase will disassociate. Sigma factor binds to promoter region (Pribnow Box -10 to -35 upstream) General housekeeping genes utilize sigma factor 70. Transcription Initiation : unlike DNA synthesis, mRNA does not need a primer. Transciption Elongation : Energy for elongation comes from dNTP. Types of RNA: mRNA – messenger RNA, template for protein synthesis rRNA – ribosomal RNA – a subunit of ribosomes tRNA – transfer RNA – carry amino acid to make protein tRNA - cloverleaf structure, with 3 base anit-codon region that pairs with the codons of the mRNA. AminoacyltRNA transferase attaches amino acids to the tRNA. The Genetic Code – amino acids are determined by 3 base sequences call codons. Translation Initiation : Ribosome is a multiple rRNA-protein complex compose of 1 subunits. 30S subunit containse a 16S rRNA, while 50S have 5S and 23S rRNA. 30S of ribosome recognize and bind to Shine-Dalgarno site. The site is complementary to the 16S rRNA. Translation Elongation : charged aminoacyl-tRNA binds to the A site, though the first methyl-aatransferase inserts at the P site. tRNA translocates to the P site as the next aa-tRNA docks, and exits the E site. Energy for binding comes from GTP. Transciption and translation is coupled, this allows for rapid protein synthesis. An advantage for rapid adjustment to environmental changes.
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Lecture 10 and 11 Horizontal Gene Transfer: transformation, conjugation and transduction. Transformation: uptake of DNA from the environment G+ cells secrete competence factors allowing for direct uptake of foreign DNA. G- cells need induced to be competent by: stress, CaCl2 washing. Most labs use the G- E. coli for transformation. Competent cells best made at early log phase. Methods of transformation include electrophoration and heat shock. Conjugation: bacterial mating
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2010 for the course BIOL biol121 taught by Professor Dsaofj during the Spring '10 term at UC Riverside.

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James Review Outline - Lecture 9 Central Dogma: D A > mR A...

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