Lecture 4and5 W10finaladditional slides

Lecture 4and5 W10finaladditional slides - Lectures 4 &...

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Lectures 4 & 5 Chapter 4 Bacterial Culture, Growth, and Development
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Outline Microbial Nutrition Nutrient Uptake Simple PTS ABC Culturing Bacteria Types of growth media Measurements of microbial growth The Growth Cycle Biofilms Cell Differentiation 2
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Importance of Bacteria to Our Lives Greatest metabolic diversity of all life forms: major agents in the recycling of C, N, S, Fe, and other elements in the environment Provide the genetic source and cellular scaffold for recombinant DNA biotechnology 3
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Microbiology: An Evolving Science © 2009 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 4 Microbial Nutrition All life requires: Electron flow, to drive all life processes Drives ions into, out of cells Used to create ATP Energy, to move electrons Materials, to make cell parts Nutrients
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5 Microbial Nutrition Essential nutrients Must be supplied from environment microorganism cannot make themselves Macronutrients Major elements in cell macromolecules C, O, H, N, P, S Ions necessary for protein function or signaling Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Fe 2+ , K +- Micronutrients Trace elements necessary for enzyme function Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Zn Cofactors and Growth factors
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6 Microbial Nutrition Nutrients Cofactors Small molecules that fit into specific enzymes Aid in catalytic process Growth factors Different microbes require different additional nutrients Examples of growth factors Vitamins: components of enzymes, co-enzymes, and electron transport carriers Amino acids: protein synthesis Purines and pyrimidines: nucleic acid synthesis
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7 Microbial Nutrition Carbon Sources CO 2 vs. organic Electron acceptors Aerobic (O 2 ) vs. anaerobic organisms Energy source Light vs. organic energy source
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8 Microbial Nutrition Carbon source for biomass Heterotrophs breakdown organic molecules to obtain energy Includes photoheterotrophs and chemoheterotrophs Autotrophs CO 2 (inorganic) complex organic molecule, build biomass: Source of energy Includes protoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs, (chemolithotrophs, and lithotrophs)
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9 Microbial Nutrition Heterotrophs (breakdown organic molecules to obtain energy) Rely on other organisms to form organic compounds Photoheterotrophy Energy from photolysis of organic compounds Organic compounds are broken down biomass Chemoheterotrophy (aka: organotrophy) oxidize organic compounds to obtain energy Energy & Carbon for biomass from organic (carbon containing) compounds
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Microbial Nutrition Autotrophs (CO 2 complex organic molecule, build biomass: Source of energy) Photoautotrophs (use light from photosynthesis) Light energy excites electrons Excited molecules are electron donors Chemoautotrophs aka: (chemolithotrophs & lithotrophs) = gain energy by oxidizing inorganics (“rock eaters”) Chemicals are electron donors
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Lecture 4and5 W10finaladditional slides - Lectures 4 &...

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