lecture 8 W10final

lecture 8 W10final - 1/21/10 1 Lecture 8 Chapter 7...

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Unformatted text preview: 1/21/10 1 Lecture 8 Chapter 7 Microbial Genomes and Chromosomes Microbial Genomics Complete DNA sequence of an organism = genome Genome of bacteria is usually circular Can be linear – Streptomyces spp. Many bacteria contain plasmids Bacterial genome = 0.6–9.4 x 10 6 bp Human genome = 4 x 10 9 bp 1000x as large as E. coli But only 8x genes: 30,000 (us) vs. 4,000 ( E. coli ) About 1000 bases in a typical bacterial gene Bacterial genomes have less non-coding sequence than a eukaryotic genome 1/21/10 2 5,076,187 bp chromosome ≈ 5 MB 2,679,305 bp chromosome ≈ 2.7 MB Xanthomonas campestris Xylella fastidiosa 1/21/10 2 5,076,187 bp chromosome ≈ 5 MB 2,679,305 bp chromosome ≈ 2.7 MB Xanthomonas campestris Xylella fastidiosa 1/21/10 3 DNA Contains Information What is a gene? Units of information composed of a sequence of DNA nucleotides (A,T,G,C) Structural gene- Codes for a functional RNA (mRNA) that can be translated into a protein DNA control sequence- A non-coding region upstream of the gene that determines when the gene is active (transcription) Promoter- signals the start of RNA synthesis Can also contain binding sites for regulatory proteins that activate or inactivate that promoter 5 Genes are organized into functional units Monocistronic RNA - codes for one protein Polycistronic – RNA codes for more than one protein Operon- genes that exist in tandem with other genes Regulon- a collection of genes and operons controlled by a common regulatory protein 6 Microbiology: An Evolving Science © 2009 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1/21/10 4 Microbiology: An Evolving Science © 2009 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 7 Nucleic Acid Information Information in the order of bases DNA: A denine, G uanine, C ytosine, T hymine RNA: A denine, G uanine, C ytosine, U racil Microbiology: An Evolving Science © 2009 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 8 Nucleic Acid Structure Deoxyribose or Ribose A sugar 3 Phosphate groups on 5 ′ carbon 5 ′ Phosphate links to 3 ′ OH of next base Base attached to sugar 1/21/10 5 DNA vs. RNA DNA= deoxyribonucleic acid RNA=ribonucleic acid Microbiology: An Evolving Science © 2009 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc....
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2010 for the course SDFA asdfsd taught by Professor Dsafsaf during the Spring '10 term at UC Riverside.

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lecture 8 W10final - 1/21/10 1 Lecture 8 Chapter 7...

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