lecture 8 W10final - Lecture 8 Chapter 7 Microbial Genomes...

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1/21/10 1 Lecture 8 Chapter 7 Microbial Genomes and Chromosomes Microbial Genomics Complete DNA sequence of an organism = genome Genome of bacteria is usually circular Can be linear – Streptomyces spp. Many bacteria contain plasmids Bacterial genome = 0.6–9.4 x 10 6 bp Human genome = 4 x 10 9 bp 1000x as large as E. coli But only 8x genes: 30,000 (us) vs. 4,000 ( E. coli ) About 1000 bases in a typical bacterial gene Bacterial genomes have less non-coding sequence than a eukaryotic genome
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1/21/10 2 5,076,187 bp chromosome 5 MB 2,679,305 bp chromosome 2.7 MB Xanthomonas campestris Xylella fastidiosa
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1/21/10 3 DNA Contains Information What is a gene? Units of information composed of a sequence of DNA nucleotides (A,T,G,C) Structural gene - Codes for a functional RNA (mRNA) that can be translated into a protein DNA control sequence - A non-coding region upstream of the gene that determines when the gene is active (transcription) Promoter - signals the start of RNA synthesis Can also contain binding sites for regulatory proteins that activate or inactivate that promoter 5 Genes are organized into functional units Monocistronic RNA - codes for one protein Polycistronic – RNA codes for more than one protein Operon - genes that exist in tandem with other genes Regulon - a collection of genes and operons controlled by a common regulatory protein 6 Microbiology: An Evolving Science © 2009 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
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1/21/10 4 Microbiology: An Evolving Science © 2009 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 7 Nucleic Acid Information Information in the order of bases DNA: A denine, G uanine, C ytosine, T hymine RNA: A denine, G uanine, C ytosine, U racil Microbiology: An Evolving Science © 2009 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 8 Nucleic Acid Structure Deoxyribose or Ribose A sugar 3 Phosphate groups on 5 carbon 5 Phosphate links to 3 OH of next base Base attached to sugar
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1/21/10 5 DNA vs. RNA DNA= deoxyribonucleic acid RNA=ribonucleic acid Microbiology: An Evolving Science © 2009 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 9
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