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Unformatted text preview: EEP 101/ECON 125 Lecture 16: Environmental Lecture and International Economics Economics
Professor David Zilberman UC Berkeley Trade and transfer of species Environmental considerations expand the range of issues affecting economic relationships between nations. International considerations expand the economics of the environment. Basic or trade economics Gain from trade Relative advantage Stolper Samuleson Gains from transfer of species Gains from Trade barriers Country A a worker produces 2 shirts or 3 breads Country B a worker produces 4 shirts or 2 breads 10 workers in each country Country A has relative advantage in bread Country B has relative advantage shirts Price of bread before trade 2/3 shirts in A 2 shirts in B After trade it is 70/55 Relative advantage and trade Gains from trade Suppose before trade each country allocated resources among activities Total 30 shirts and 25 breads After trade there is specialization
• • Country A produces 10 shirts and 15 breads Country B produces 20 shirts and 10 breads The exact equilibrium and trade pattern depends on tastes, technology and endowments • Country a produces breads 30 of them • Country B produces 40 shirts Exporting Environmental quality Exporting when it is abundant when
Environ mental quality A A outcome without trade B with trade AC export of EQ CB import of food DB utility gain from trade c
D B International Price ration food Patterns of trade The Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem:A country will country export goods that are intensive in input abundant in the country the
• A capital-abundant country will export the capitalintensive goods intensive • The labor-abundant country will export the laborintensive good. Countries with abundance of natural resources and Countries environmental amenities will export them environmental Stolper Samuelson A movement to free trade will cause the real movement return of a country's relatively abundant factor to rise, while the real return of the country's relatively scarce factor will fall. relatively The labor in a labor intensive country will The benefits from trade, but the capital may lose benefits In the US which is relative to the rest of the In world is capital intensive, labor loses from tree trade but capital gains trade Gainers and losers from trade Consumers gain Specialized Workers and owners in exporting industrieswin Specialized Workers and owners of assets in export sector Labor moves among section gains if labor intensive product is exported Environment and future generation may lose if Natural resources are exported Sad truth about trade Trade may have bad effects, but sometimes the alternative is worst Poor countries will sell their resources, their people may engage in the least desirable jobs producing export product Trade polices do not follow text books some governments may gain from trade in natural resources and enhance it
Dictatorships may lead poor countries to sell their citizens health and resources Trade model assume competition ignore dynamics and the fact that government may control extraction MC extraction plus future A B MC of extraction International price of environment B actual mining of Environment A Optimal level Exporting the environment Poverty lead to taking more risks "Value of life" is the cost saving of a "statistical" life as implied by safety regulations. "Value of life" in poorer countries is likely to be smaller than richer countries. As countries become richer, environmental and safety regulations become stricter. Production activities are less pollution intensive International trade may lead to the concentration of waste material, lower environmental quality, and lower human health in poorer nations. Trade and waste disposal Environmental quality may be viewed as consumption goods that are empirically found to have highincome elasticity. They will be consumed more intensively in richer countries. Environmental quality characteristics and human health may be viewed as inputs in the production process. Poorer countries have relatively more of these inputs (relative to, say, capital); therefore, they should: • Specialize in pollutionintensive products. • Adopt technologies that are intensive in pollution. • Provide waste disposal services. • Have more unrestricted worker safety and human health regulations.
. Ownership politics and trade
Private+external lity+future cost Private+ Externality cost IF the owner Of waste disposal facility does not Pay for the Externality cost And is myopic trade is bad Demand for Waste disposal Private Marginal cost Does trade lead to deterioration of environmental quality? Less regulation may provide an edge But greener technology may lead to tougher regulations Evidence of races to the top and bottom Always higher income lead to greener emphasis Barriers to trade and reduce opportunity May lead to neglect and deerioration The race to the bottom Trade and waste disposal Trade continued continued Laws and safety standards in developing countries may cause loss of jobs in developed nations, which will lead to a call for "harmonization" of regulations. Some waste accumulation activities in poorer nations may be objectionable because of their irreversible outcomes and impacts on future generation. Income distribution considerations also affect safety regulation and environmental regulations. Comparing countries with equal average income, the countries with more uneven income distribution are likely to export worker safety, and some aspects of environmental quality may import other aspects (for the very rich). “Gains” from trade barriers
Because of the gains from trade, trade limits provide lucrative opportunities Barriers of movement of commodities and labor may lead to illegal smuggling Crime will rise near border towns Crime includes smuggling of illicit drugs, migrant and natural resources Restriction of natural resources & wild life export Barriers of trade may make some better off but society worse off • may induce illicit activitiespoaching • Require sufficient enforcement to fight crime Trade and transfer of species Trade International exchanges include transfer of species (biodiversity) and technologies.
• The discovery of America introduced Europeans to tomatoes, potatoes, corn, etc. • Australia expanded the range of tree species available for forestry. There are gains from transfer of biodiversity but also losses.
• Exotic species may dominate native species. Transfer of species may lead to diseases and destruction if unchecked.
• Rabbits in Australia. • Syphilis was brought to Europe from America. Design of Institutional and policy Design solution for species movement solution Policy mechanisms to optimally transfer species and to protect against undesired transfers of bio matters. Some mechanisms include: • Quarantines • Ban on transfers of certain materials. Compensation for the use of genetic materials are issues of policy concern. • How much should developing nations be paid for the use of their species in developing medicines, new crop varieties, and other products? • How should the royalties for genetic materials within nations be distributed? Shadow pricing and gain from Shadow smuggling smuggling US
Labor market Mexico labor market Extra wage For illegal worker Global interdependency Environmental consideration leads to interdependency between nations. There may be externalities between nations: • Production externalities as in the case of acid rain. • Consumption externalitiespeople are concerned about human conditions and other countries, hunger, genocide, etc. People are concerned with environmental conditions in other countries. Correction of externality situations may require policies besides trade.
• Transfer payments to reduce pollution activities. • Aid to address undesirable situations (hunger, deforestation, etc.) . Humans share some resources globally. Without intervention to address freerider problems, there may be nonoptimal uses of global common resources. • Destruction of fisheries demonstrate the failure of laissefaire approaches for global common resources. • Addressing problems of ozone depletion and global warming require collective action between nations. • Example: The gradual use of bans on methyl bromide, ban on aerosols, and others Possible global common Possible problems problems Global interdependency Humans share some resources globally. Without intervention to address freerider problems, there may be nonoptimal uses of global common resources.
• Destruction of fisheries demonstrate the failure of laissefaire approaches for global common resources. • Addressing problems of ozone depletion and global warming require collective action between nations. • Example: The gradual use of bans on methyl bromide, ban on aerosols, and others. Because of shared benefits of biodiversity, developed nations are interested in the presentation of resources in developing nations. Transfer mechanization (forest for debt) is needed to assure such conservation activities. Trade may reduce the need to use toxic chemicals or pesticides. Gains from trade may include Gains improvement in environmental quality • Example: Export of grapes and apples from southern countries (Chile) leads to the use of less storage in the northern countries. Trade may lead to export of less polluting inputs. India will benefit from exporting. Cleaner coal for energy generation to reduce air pollution increases energy production. Trade enables the production of trees and food in locations (warm climate zones) where the growth rates are much higher and preserves trees in areas with low growth rates. Environmental barriers to trade Environmental Environmental policy may be used as barriers to trade as international trade agreement leads to freer trade and reduces trade barriers. Environmental policy may be used as a means for protection. • Food safety regulation may be used for protective purposes. • Agricultural policies are replaced with policies to protect "rural life styles." Mechanisms are needed to identify where policies are genuinely developed for environmental protection and when they are used for protection of domestic industries. Environmental regulation may not exist or may not be enforced, particularly in poor countries. Waterborne diseases are major problems. Developing countries with medium levels of income per capita (say, above $2,000/year) address severe pollution problems: Air pollution Water pollution. Protection against overutilization of natural resources occurs mostly in richer countries with GNP/capita of, say, above $5,000/year. Rich countries will develop policies to protect resources that provide mainly aesthetic or consumptive benefits. Economic development leads to increased demand for environmental protection but also increased use of energy and other resources. Income and environmental Income protection protection Environmental and Environmental human well-being human GNP is a traditional measure of economic wellbeing of an economy, but it may overestimate economic wellbeing because it does not consider resource degradation and environmental quality problems. A partial answer is introduced by a new measure.
ANNP ANNP GNP DM DN = Adjusted net national product. = GNP DM DN. = Gross national product = consumption + saving = Depreciation of physical capital = Depreciation of neutral capital. Environmental and Environmental human well-being continued human The correction of a national product will be greater in countries with a high rate of resource depletion (Mexico, Indonesia) than countries with lower rates of depletion (Costa Rica). Other measures of wellbeing explicitly introduce measures of environmental and other aspects of quality of life. It is difficult to monetize environmental benefits or quality of life. One approach is to weigh indexes of wellbeing (life expectancy, air pollution, water quality, population density) by “monetizing” coefficients. However, this approach is arbitrary. Sustainability A key issue is depletion of natural resources (NR). NR can be classified as renewable (fish, forest) or nonrenewable (minerals). A continuous extraction of nonrenewable resources will lead to their depletion in the future. Renewable resources can be sustained if use does not permanently exceed the growth rate. Sustainability continued For many fisheries, wildlife, or forests, excessive extraction leads to reduction of stock and in some cases to extinction. Sustainability is aimed to stabilize resource stocks at a socially desirable level. Many development processes may be fueled by excessive extractionsustainable development aims to combine development and longrun survival. It, therefore, leads to restoration policies of depleted resource stocks and thus temporary (or permanent) slowness in growth. It requires monitoring of a natural system to account for natural capital stocks and leads to more ecological, sound management techniques. Definitions Irreversibility: Situations where future effort cannot correct for current or past damage. Death is irreversible. Uncertainty: Lack of knowledge about the performance of economic and ecological system. Uncertainty requires (1) learning and (2) caution in action. Adaptive management: Resource utilization approach that entails constant learning and reassessment. Modern approach to Modern development projects development “Feedback” is a key in adaptive management strategies. Actions are taken (new technologies are tried and new incentives are introduced) to observe response which will lend to improving future policies. Traditional management policies devise “open loop” systems that are designed to produce the best policies under average future conditions. New managementtechniques (adaptive management) are close loop strategies that experiment identifying states and natures and then make adjustments. Modern approach to Modern development projects continued development In the past many resource management projects emphasized “structural solution.” The best solution to a perceived water shortage was a water diversion project. Now the emphasis is on nonstructural solution introduction of an institution or incentive to modify behavior (for example, water markets). While “market failure” may be the cause for many pollution problems, lack of markets and property rights may be the source for other concerns. Modern approach to Modern development projects continued development Water is mainly allocated by queues (water rights), and water right holders are not allowed to trade them. Water markets may solve this problem. Lack of landownership leads to overgrazing and depletion of land quality. Land rights and trading may reduce this problem. Technology and the environment Perception: Modern technology is a major cause of environmental degradation: Pesticides Fertilizers Reality: Technology impacts depend on policy. Technologies have had strong, positive environmental effects. (1) Higher yields prevented the need to expand land bases, thus, further reducing wildland and damaging biodiversity. (2) Knowledge and technology are useful for: Detecting environmental problems Restoration Incentives may lead to pollution and contamination. Kuznets Curve Pollution per capita increases with incme and then declines Environmental quality luxury good Rich select cleaner industries Miniaturation
• Have higher regulatory standards • Export their waste Global environmental problems Climate change Acid rain Biodiversity Ozone depletion Fish stock depletion Global environmental problems Global continued continued Global resource problems are in most cases a bigger concern for developed nations. There is a need for cooperation. Developed countries demand to be paid to cooperate. Schemes like “debt for nature” require monitoring and enforcement to be effective. A major issue is protection for the hardesthit victims of problems (Bangladesh in case of global warming). Solutions to global problems erode the power of states and lead to the emergence of powerful international institutions. ...
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