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Unformatted text preview: dence of races to the top and bottom Always higher income lead to greener emphasis Barriers to trade and reduce opportunity May lead to neglect and deerioration The race to the bottom Trade and waste disposal Trade continued continued Laws and safety standards in developing countries may cause loss of jobs in developed nations, which will lead to a call for "harmonization" of regulations. Some waste accumulation activities in poorer nations may be objectionable because of their irreversible outcomes and impacts on future generation. Income distribution considerations also affect safety regulation and environmental regulations. Comparing countries with equal average income, the countries with more uneven income distribution are likely to export worker safety, and some aspects of environmental quality may import other aspects (for the very rich). “Gains” from trade barriers Because of the gains from trade, trade limits provide lucrative opportunities Barriers of movement of commodities and labor may lead to illegal smuggling Crime will rise near border towns Crime includes smuggling of illicit drugs, migrant and natural resources Restriction of natural resources & wild life export Barriers of trade may make some better off but society worse off • may induce illicit activities­poaching • Require sufficient enforcement to fight crime Trade and transfer of species Trade International exchanges include transfer of species (biodiversity) and technologies. • The discovery of America introduced Europeans to tomatoes, potatoes, corn, etc. • Australia expanded the range of tree species available for forestry. There are gains from transfer of biodiversity but also losses. • Exotic species may dominate native species. Transfer of species may lead to diseases and destruction if unchecked. • Rabbits in Australia. • Syphilis was brought to Europe from America. Design of Institutional and policy Design solution for species movement solution Policy mechanisms to optimally transfer species an...
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