1Chapter 8Quantum numbersQuantum Numbers•A set of fourquantum numbers can be used to describe the energy of and the space where an electron may be found within an atom. •Every electron in an atom has auniqueset of 4Every electron in an atom has a set of 4 quantum numbers.•Quantum numbers can be used with the Schrödinger Equation to determine the wave function and probability map of a specific electron.The Principle Quantum NumberThe Principle Quantum Number (n)(n)The ENERGY LEVEL of the electron.n = 1,2,3,4,5,…..(to infinity)Corresponds to the Bohr model energy level.Corresponds to the ROW of the periodic tableCorresponds to the ROW of the periodic table.The # of electrons in level n= 2n2The higher the energy level, the higher the energy of the electron. However, as nincreasesthe energy difference between adjacent energy levels decreases.The Angular Momentum Quantum Number (l)The ENERGY SUBLEVEL of the electron.Also indicates the SHAPE of the orbital (region of space occupied by an electron.Every energy level (n) can be broken down into nsublevels. •For example, the third energy level can be broken down into three sublevels).l-values range from zeroto n-1.•For example, in the third energy level, the lquantum number can be equal to0, 1, or 2).Sublevels have the following letter designations. Each sublevel has an orbital shape characteristic to it.l- valuelettershapel= 0sSphericall= 1pPeanut (figure 8)1l= 2dFour 4-leaf cloversOne dumbbell with a donutl= 3fFlowerPtD=donutS=sphericalP=peanut
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