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Unformatted text preview: 1 Chapter 8 Chapter 8 ¡ Quantum numbers Quantum Numbers Quantum Numbers • A set of four quantum numbers can be used to describe the energy of and the space where an electron may be found within an atom. • Every electron in an atom has a unique set of 4 • Every electron in an atom has a unique set of 4 quantum numbers. • Quantum numbers can be used with the Schrödinger Equation to determine the wave function and probability map of a specific electron. The Principle Quantum Number The Principle Quantum Number (n) (n) ¡ The ENERGY LEVEL of the electron. ¡ n = 1,2,3,4,5,…..(to infinity) ¡ Corresponds to the Bohr model energy level. Corresponds to the ROW of the periodic table ¡ Corresponds to the ROW of the periodic table. ¡ The # of electrons in level n = 2 n 2 ¡ The higher the energy level, the higher the energy of the electron. However, as n increases the energy difference between adjacent energy levels decreases . The Angular Momentum Quantum Number ( The Angular Momentum Quantum Number ( l ) ¡ The ENERGY SUBLEVEL of the electron. ¡ Also indicates the SHAPE of the orbital (region of space occupied by an electron. ¡ Every energy level (n) can be broken down into n sublevels. • For example, the third energy level can be broken down into three sublevels). ¡ l-values range from zero to n-1 . • For example, in the third energy level, the l quantum number can be equal to 0, 1, or 2). Sublevels have the following letter designations. Sublevels have the following letter designations. Each sublevel has an orbital shape characteristic to it. Each sublevel has an orbital shape characteristic to it. l- value letter shape l = 0 s Spherical l = 1 p Peanut (figure 8) l 1 p Peanut (figure 8) l = 2 d Four 4-leaf clovers One dumbbell with a donut l = 3 f Flower D=donut D=donut S=spherical S=spherical P=peanut P=peanut 2 Note: Note: when the 3 when the 3 p orbitals p orbitals are added are added together, together, they occupy they occupy most of the most of the available available space. space. The Magnetic Quantum Number (m The Magnetic Quantum Number (m l ) ¡ Determines the orbital (specific region of space within a sublevel) that an electron occupies....
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2010 for the course CHEM 210 taught by Professor Mcomber during the Spring '10 term at Skyline College.
- Spring '10