1
Chapter 8
Quantum numbers
Quantum Numbers
•
A set of
four
quantum numbers can be used to
describe the energy of and the space where an
electron may be found within an atom.
•
Every electron in an atom has a
unique
set of 4
Every electron in an atom has a
set of 4
quantum numbers.
•
Quantum numbers can be used with the
Schrödinger Equation to determine the wave
function and probability map of a specific electron.
The Principle Quantum Number
The Principle Quantum Number (n)
(n)
The ENERGY LEVEL of the electron.
n = 1,2,3,4,5,…..(to infinity)
Corresponds to the Bohr model energy level.
Corresponds to the ROW of the periodic table
Corresponds to the ROW of the periodic table.
The # of electrons in level
n
= 2
n
2
The higher the energy level, the higher the energy
of the electron.
However, as
n
increases
the energy
difference between adjacent energy levels
decreases
.
The Angular Momentum Quantum Number (
l
)
The ENERGY SUBLEVEL of the electron.
Also indicates the SHAPE of the orbital (region of
space occupied by an electron.
Every energy level (n) can be broken down into n
sublevels.
•
For example, the third energy level can be broken down
into three sublevels).
l
-values range from
zero
to
n-1
.
•
For example, in the third energy level, the
l
quantum
number can be equal to
0, 1, or 2).
Sublevels have the following letter designations.
Each sublevel has an orbital shape characteristic to it.
l
- value
letter
shape
l
= 0
s
Spherical
l
= 1
p
Peanut (figure 8)
1
l
= 2
d
Four 4-leaf clovers
One dumbbell
with a donut
l
= 3
f
Flower
P
t
D=donut
S=spherical
P=peanut

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