MICRO-s10_11 - 3/1/2010 BIOL 240: General Microbiology...

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Unformatted text preview: 3/1/2010 BIOL 240: General Microbiology General Spring 2010 Rm. 22-116 T, Mar. 2, 2010 http://www.smccd.edu/accounts/staplesn/biol240/ 1. Pre-Lab Writeups: Be sure to prepare before Lab W riteups Be each Monday’s labs (for BOTH Mon. & Wed.)!! each – (What? Why? How? are we doing in the lab??) 2. Be sure to keep up with BY ARRANGEMENT Be HOURS!! They are REQUIRED for your grade!! • -- average TWO documented hours/week. 3. MT1 will be returned in LAB today, & M/C MT1 Answer KEY will be posted. Answer • under “Add’l Materials” tab. under 4. Lab Quiz #3 due this THURSDAY night!! 1. Diagram the investment and release of energy and Carbon atoms from 1. Diagram Carbon atoms Glycolysis. Glycolysis. 2. Diagram or outline the process by which high energy electron carriers Diagram high are produced by glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and the Krebs/TCA cycle. are glycolysis pyruvate REVIEW: REVIEW: TODAY’s Objectives: Students should be able to... 1. Diagram how high energy electrons are used to produce Diagram ATP iin the mitochondrial inner membrane (or bacterial plasma mem.). ATP n or mem 2. Compare and contrast the energy inputs and outputs of Compare Fermentation & Aerobic Respiration/Oxidative Fermentation phosphorylation. 3. Compare transport and final electron acceptors between Compare aerobic and two different types of anaerobic respiration. aerobic 4. Explain how lipids and proteins are catabolized and energy Explain catabolized and harvested thru pathways shared with glucose metabolism. harvested 5. Explain how light energy is harvested and stored iin the n Explain light form of chemical energy by photosynthetic organisms. form 1 3/1/2010 D. The Electron Transport Chain • A series of carrier series molecules that are, in turn, oxidized and reduced as electrons are passed down the chain. chain. • Energy released can Energy be used to produce ATP by chemiosmosis. chemiosmosis Figure 5.14 E. Chemi-osmosis • Each NADH 3 ATP Each • Each FADH2 2 ATP Figure 5.15 create gradient of [H+] and electric charge — the Proton-Motive Force. create gradient and electric the Proton 2 3/1/2010 Chemi-osmosis • Stronger Electron-Acceptors/Oxidizers Acceptors/Oxidizers http://vcell.ndsu.nodak.edu/animations/etc/movie.htm Figure 5.16 5.6) Respiration • Aerobic respiration: The The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is molecular oxygen (O2). molecular • Anaerobic respiration: The The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is not O2. not – Yields less energy than Yields aerobic respiration • only part of the Krebs cycle only operates w/out O2. operates Figure 5.17 3 3/1/2010 A. Aerobic Respiration Pathway Glycolysis Intermediate step (Pyruvate Ox’n) Krebs cycle ETC Eukaryote Cytoplasm Prokaryote Cytoplasm Mito. Inner Memb Cytoplasm Mito. Memb Mitochondrial Mitochondrial matrix matrix Mitochondrial Mitochondrial inner membrane inner Cytoplasm Plasma Plasma membrane membrane • Energy produced (types) – from complete from oxidation of 1 glucose using aerobic respiration oxidation ATP produced 2 0 2 4 NADH FADH2 produced produced 2 2 6 10 0 0 2 2 Pathway Glycolysis Pyruvate Oxidation Krebs cycle Total 4 3/1/2010 • ATP produced (chemical processes) ffrom complete rom oxidation of 1 glucose using aerobic respiration. glucose Pathway Glycolysis Pyruvate Oxidation Krebs cycle Total By SubstrateBy Substrate Level Level Phosphorylation Phosphorylation 2 0 2 4 By Oxidative By Phosphorylation Phosphorylation From From From From NADH FADH2 NADH FADH 6 0 6 18 30 0 4 4 • 38 ATPs are produced in prokaryotes, 36 iin Euk. are prokaryotes 36 n Euk Aerobic Metabolic Yield, Aerobic Summary (Eukaryotes): Summary NET: 1. Glyc 1. Glyc 2 ATP (4 made, 2 invested) 2 NADHH 4 ATP ((use 2 ATP on transport into mito IM!!) use on NADHH 2. Pyr.Ox.= 2 NADHH 6 ATP 2. Pyr.Ox 3. TCA = 6 NADHH 18 ATP 3. NADHH 2 GTP 2 ATP GTP 2 FADH2 4 ATP FADH2 36 ATP total NET from Glycolysis 36 NET from & Oxidative Respiration Oxidative http://vcell.ndsu.nodak.edu/animations/atpgradient/movie.htm http://www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/0470003790/animations/electron_transport/electron_transport.swf = 5 3/1/2010 B. Anaerobic respiration Electron acceptor NO3– SO4– CO32 – Products NO2– ; N2 + H2O H2S + H2O CH4 + H2O 5.7) Fermentation 1. 2. 3. 4. Releases energy from oxidation of organic molecules Does not require oxygen Does not use the Krebs cycle or ETC Uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor Figure 5.18b 6 3/1/2010 A. Types of Fermentation • Alcohol fermentation - Produces ethyl alcohol Produces + CO2 CO • Lactic acid fermentation - Produces lactic Produces acid. acid. – Homolactic fermentation - Produces lactic acid Produces only. only. – Heterolactic fermentation - Produces lactic acid Produces and other compounds (eg: acetoin). and acetoin Fermentation Figure 5.23 The Glucose song!!!.... http://www.science-groove.org/Now/Glucose.html Figure 5.19 7 3/1/2010 5.8) Catabolism: 5.8) A. Lipid Catabolism A. http://www.wiley.com/college/prat t/0471393878/student/animations /citric_acid_cycle/index.html Figure 5.20 B. Protein Catabolism Protein Extracellular Extracellular proteases proteases Amino acids Organic acid Krebs cycle Deamination ( acid), decarboxylation decarboxylation ( amine), dehydrogenation Decarboxylation H + CO2 Figure 5.22 http://www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/0470003790/animations/tca/tca.htm 8 3/1/2010 ** Biochemical tests ** • Used to identify bacteria. Dichotomous Dichotomous Key: Key: Figure 10.8 5.9) Photosynthesis • Photo: Conversion of light energy into chemical Conversion energy (ATP) energy – Light-dependent (light) reactions • Synthesis: Fixing carbon into organic molecules – Light-independent (dark) reaction, Calvin-Benson cycle Oxygenic: 6 CO2 + 12 H2O + Light energy C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O Light Anoxygenic: CO2 + 2 H2S + Light energy [CH2O] + 2 A + H2O Light 9 3/1/2010 A. Cyclic Photophosphorylation ATP ONLY!!!! (No NADPH) B. Noncyclic B. Noncyclic Photophosphorylation ATP AND NADPH made!!!! PSI Fdx PSII “Z -Scheme” of electron of Transport: LightTransport: energized TWICE!! Chl Figure 5.25 Noncyclic Pathway “Z-Scheme” of electron Transport: Light-energized TWICE!! sunlight stroma ATP + Pi ATP ATP synthase H+ H+ H+ H+ O H+ H+ H+ photolysis H2 O e- ethylakoid membrane NADPH eH+ photosystem II photosystem I NADP+ http://vcell.ndsu.nodak.edu/animations/photosynthesis/movie.htm http://www.fw.vt.edu/dendro/forestbiology/photosynthesis.swf http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/metabolism/photosynthesis.swf 10 3/1/2010 CalvinBenson Benson Cycle: CarbonCarbon Fixation! Figure 5.26 5C RuBP Unstable 6C intermediate 5C RuBP (15 Carbons) 2x 3C 2x 3C C-fixation!! • SYNTHESIS!!! “Dark Reactions” SYNTHESIS!!! • Using ATP & NADPH made in Using the light reactions!! the (15 Carbons) Step-By-Step Narration: Step http://www.cells.de/cellseng/1medienarchiv/Zellfu http://www.cells.de/cellseng/1medienarchiv/Zellfu nktionen/Memb_Vorg/Photosynthese/Dunkel_u_S taerke/Calvin-Benson-Zyklus/index.jsp 6C + Products **http://www.science.smith.edu/departments/ Biology/Bio111/calvin.html Table 5.6 ** Study figure 5. 28!! ** http://www.science.smith.edu/departments/Biology/Bio111/calvin.html http://www.cells.de/cellseng/1medienarchiv/Zellfunktionen/Memb_V org/Photosynthese/Dunkel_u_Staerke/Calvin -Benson-Zyklus/index.jsp 11 3/1/2010 • Halobacterium uses uses bacteriorhodopsin, bacteriorhodopsin – not chlorophyll, chlorophyll, – to generate electrons to for a chemiosmotic chemiosmotic proton pump. 5.10) Chemotrophs 5.10) Chemotrophs • Use energy from chemicals. – Chemoheterotroph Glucose NAD+ ETC Pyruvic acid NADH ADP + P ADP ATP • Energy is used in anabolism. 12 3/1/2010 Chemotrophs • Use energy from chemicals. – Chemoautotroph, Thiobacillus ferroxidans Thiobacillus 2Fe2+ NAD+ ETC 2Fe3+ 2 H+ NADH ADP + P ATP • Energy used in the Calvin-Benson cycle to fix CO2. 5.11) Phototrophs 5.11) Phototrophs • Use light energy. Chlorophyll ETC Chlorophyll oxidized ADP + P ATP • Photoautotrophs use energy use in the Calvin-Benson cycle in Benson to fix CO2. to • Photoheterotrophs use use energy. energy. Figure 5.27 13 3/1/2010 Metabolic Diversity Among Metabolic Organisms Organisms Nutritional type Photoautotroph Energy Energy source source Light Carbon Carbon source source CO2 Example Oxygenic: Oxygenic: Cyanobacteria plants. Cyanobacteria Anoxygenic: Green, Green, purple bacteria. purple Photoheterotroph Chemoautotroph Light Organic Green, purple Organic Green, compounds nonsulfur bacteria. compounds nonsulfur Iron-oxidizing bacteria. Chemical CO2 Chemoheterotroph Chemical Organic Fermentative bacteria. Organic compounds Animals, protozoa, compounds Animals, fungi, bacteria. fungi, ** Study figure 5.28!! ** 5.12) Anabolism: Metabolic Metabolic Pathways of Energy Use Pathways A. Polysaccharide Polysaccharide Biosynthesis Biosynthesis B. Lipid Biosynthesis Figure 5.29 Figure 5.30 14 3/1/2010 Anabolism/Biosynthesis C. Amino Acid and Protein Biosynthesis Figure 31 Anabolism D. Purine and Pyrimidine Biosynthesis and Pyrimidine Figure 5.32 15 3/1/2010 5.13) Amphibolic pathways • Are metabolic Are pathways that have both catabolic and catabolic and anabolic anabolic functions. Figure 5.33 Chapter 6 Microbial Microbial Growth Growth 16 ...
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