MICRO-s10_04 - 2/1/2010 BIOL 240: General Microbiology...

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Unformatted text preview: 2/1/2010 BIOL 240: General Microbiology General Spring 2010 Rm. 22-116 T, Feb. 2, 2010 http://www.smccd.edu/accounts/staplesn/biol240/ 1. Pre-Lab Writeups: Be sure to prepare before each Lab W riteups Be Monday’s labs (for BOTH Mon. & Wed.)!! Monday – (What? Why? How? are we doing in the lab??) 2. Pre-llecture slides and study guides available on course ecture website by the night before. • (Print WISELY!! If you choose to do so..) 3. Bi-weekly lab quizzes – practice quiz & Quiz #1 DUE WED!! weekly practice – http://smccd.mrooms.net/ -- llogin with G# and Password ogin ( = birth date, MMDDYY, if new) birth REVIEW: REVIEW: 1.. Ch. 2: Describe the 6 “Elements of Life”, ttheir relative electron heir 1 Describe affinities and bonding properties, and their roles in biomolecules. affinities and biomolecules 2. Describe how the Octet Rule affects chemical bonding, and distinguish Describe Octet affects between the relative strengths of the 3 main chemical bonds fformed in ormed main biomolecules. biomolecules 3. Distinguish between 4 types of chemical interactions and reactions Distinguish types common in living systems. TODAY’s Objectives: Students should be able to….. 1. List 5 special properties of water tthat make it the “perfect” medium for hat List properties medium life. life. 2. List the 4 types of macromolecules iin living systems, and describe how n List types the components of each particular molecular structure determines its biological function. …… biological …… 1 2/1/2010 2.2) Important Biological Important Molecules Molecules • Organic compounds always contain carbon Organic and hydrogen. and • Inorganic compounds typically lack carbon. Inorganic A. Inorganic Compounds: A. Water Water • Polar molecule – Partial charges δ • H-Bonding • Tetrahedral δ δ Figure 2.4a 2 2/1/2010 Inorganic Compounds: Water 1. Solvent – Polar substances dissociate, forming solutes. Figure 2.5 Inorganic Compounds: Inorganic Water Water 2. H+ and OH participate in participate chemical reactions chemical – Acid/Base properties Acid/Base of water of δ δ 3. Hydrogen bonding between water molecules between makes water a temperature buffer. temperature • H-bonds absorb heat Figure 2.4b 4. Tetrahedral – ice floats! 3 2/1/2010 B. Acids, Bases, and Salts 1. An acid iis a substance An acid s that dissociates into one or more H+. HCl H+ + Cl 2. A base iis a substance base s that dissociates into one or more OH, or takes OH or up one or more H+. NaOH Na+ + OH Figure 2.6ab Acids, Bases, and Salts • A salt iis a substance that salt s dissociates into cations and cations and anions anions – neither of which is H+ or OH. or NaCl Na+ + Cl Figure 2.6c 4 2/1/2010 Acid-Base Balance • The amount of H+ iin a solution is expressed n as pH. as • pH = log[H+] (Molar = moles/L) pH – eg: pH 7 = 1/107 (= 10-7) moles H+/L pH Increasing [H+], iincreases acidity. Increasing [H ncreases acidity Increasing [OH] or decreasing [H+] Increasing [OH or [H iincreases alkalinity. ncreases alkalinity • Most organisms grow best b/tw pH 6.5 & 8.5. Most b/tw Acid-Base Balance Figure 2.7 5 2/1/2010 C. Organic Compounds • Carbon skeleton – The chain of carbon atoms The in an organic molecule. in • Functional groups – responsible for most of responsible the chemical properties of a particular organic compound. compound. Hydroxyl groups (-OH) alcohols OH) Functional Groups Table 2.3 6 2/1/2010 Organic Compounds • Small organic molecules can combine Small into large macromolecules. macromolecules • Macromolecules are polymers Macromolecules polymers consisting of many small repeating consisting molecules. molecules. – The smaller molecules are called The monomers. monomers Organic Compounds • Monomers join by dehydration synthesis Monomers dehydration or condensation reactions. or condensation Figure 2.8 7 2/1/2010 1. Carbohydrates • Are important for structure and as energy Are sources. sources. • Consist of C, H, and O with the formula Consist (CH2O)n (CH • Monosaccharides are simple sugars with 3 are to 7 carbon atoms. to Figure 2.8 Carbohydrates • Disaccharides are formed when two Disaccharides monosaccharides are joined in a dehydration monosaccharides are synthesis (condensation). synthesis – Disaccharides can be broken down by hydrolysis. Disaccharides hydrolysis Figure 2.8 8 2/1/2010 Carbohydrates 1. Oligosaccharides consist of 2 consist to 20 monosaccharides. monosaccharides 2. Polysaccharides = tens or 2. tens hundreds of monosaccharides monosaccharides jjoined by condensation rxns. oined rxns 3. Starch, glycogen, dextran, and glycogen dextran and cellulose cellulose – All polymers of glucose that are All covalently bonded differently. covalently 4. Chitin iis a polymer of two sugars s repeating many times. repeating 2. Lipids • Are the primary components of cell Are membranes. membranes. • Consist of C, H, and O. • Are nonpolar and insoluble in water. Are nonpolar and insoluble – “Hydrophobic” 9 2/1/2010 a.) Simple lipids • = fats or fats or triglycerides triglycerides – contain contain glycerol and fatty acids; formed by dehydration synthesis. synthesis • Unsaturated Unsaturated fats fats – have one or more double bonds in the fatty fatty acids. acids. Figure 2.9c b.) Complex lipids • Contain C, H, & O, + P, N, or S. • Membranes are made of phospholipids Membranes phospholipids – Hydrophilic head – Hydrophobic tail Figure 2.10 10 2/1/2010 c.) Steroids • Consist of four Consist carbon rings, with an carbon with –OH group attached attached to one ring. – Are part of Are membranes. membranes – Precursors to Precursors hormones hormones Figure 2.11 3. Proteins • Are essential in cell structure and function. 1. Enzymes are proteins that speed chemical are reactions. reactions. 2. Transporter proteins move chemicals move across membranes. across 3. Flagella are made of proteins. 4. Some bacterial toxins are proteins. Some bacterial Figure 2.12 11 2/1/2010 a.) Proteins – Amino Acids a.) • Consist of subunits called amino acids. Consist amino Nonpolar Acidic, Acidic, anionic anionic Polar Table 2.4.1 Amino Acids Acidic, Acidic, anionic anionic Basic, Basic, cationic cationic Cyclic - Nonpolar - Ionic Table 2.4.2 12 2/1/2010 b.) Peptide Bonds • Peptide bonds between amino acids are between formed by dehydration synthesis/ condensation Reactions condensation Figure 2.14 c.) Levels of Protein Structure 1. The primary structure iis a polypeptide s The primary chain chain – LINEAR SEQUENCE and number of AA’s. Figure 2.15a 13 2/1/2010 Levels of Protein Structure 2. The secondary structure The secondary – amino acid chain folds amino and coils in a regular helix or pleats. or – Simple folded/coiled Simple structures structures Figure 2.15b http://www.chemguide.co.uk/organicp rops/aminoacids/proteinstruct.html Levels of Protein Structure Figure 2.15c 3. The tertiary structure The tertiary (3D structure!!): – the helix folds irregularly, the – forming disulfide bonds, Hbonds, and ionic bonds between bonds, amino acids in the chain. amino 14 2/1/2010 Levels of Protein Structure 4. The quaternary structure consists of two The quaternary consists or more polypeptides. or – Two or more (≥ 2), 3D-folded polypeptides associated into a multi-peptide complex. Figure 2.15d d.) Complex Macromolecules • Conjugated proteins consist of amino consist acids and other organic molecules: acids 1. Glycoproteins 2. Nucleoproteins 3. Lipoproteins 4. Phosphoproteins 15 2/1/2010 4. Nucleic Acids • Consist of nucleotides. Consist nucleotides • Nucleotides consist of a: – 1. 2. 3. (Phosphate-Sugar-Base) Pentose Phosphate group Nitrogen-containing (purine or pyrimidine) base or pyrimidine Figure 2.16 a.) DNA • Has deoxyribose Has deoxyribose • Exists as a double Exists helix helix • A hydrogen bonds hydrogen with T • C hydrogen bonds hydrogen with G Figure 2.16 16 2/1/2010 b.) RNA • Has ribose Has ribose • Is single-stranded • A hydrogen bonds hydrogen with U • C hydrogen bonds hydrogen with G Figure 2.17 c.) ATP • Has ribose, adenine, and Has 3 phosphate groups phosphate X -X X X X X Figure 2.18 17 2/1/2010 ATP • Is made by dehydration synthesis. Is dehydration – Absorbs/requires energy = Endergonic Absorbs/requires Endergonic • Is broken by hydrolysis to liberate useful Is hydrolysis to energy for the cell. energy – Releases energy = Exergonic Releases Exergonic Chapter 4 Functional Anatomy of Functional Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells Cells 18 ...
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