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Unformatted text preview: BIOL 240: General Microbiology General
Rm. 22-116 Spring 2010 ( Jan. 19, 2010 ) Rm. 22
Dr. Nathan Staples (Ph.D., UCSB 2002)
1. Part I: Basics of Microbes
– Midterm 1 = Tues., 2/23 2. Part I, II: Microbial Metabolism & Genetics
– MT2 = Tues., 3/23 3. Part II, III, IV: Biotechnology, Microbial Diversity & Biotechnology, Host-Microbe Interactions Host
– MT3 = Tues., 4/27 4. Part IV: Immunity, Microbial Diseases, Envt. Micro. Immunity, Envt
FINAL EXAM (1/3 cumulative): Tues., May 15, 8:10am-10:40am FINAL Syllabus: “Fine Print” Syllabus:
• Dr. Staples’ Office hours (16-204): Tue./Thu. 12:30 PM-2 PM, Mon./Wed. 10-11 AM; and By Appointment!! – [email protected], (650) 306-3251. • Website: http://www.smccd.edu/accounts/staplesn/biol240/ Website: http://www.smccd.edu/accounts/staplesn/biol240/ – “Pre-Lecture” slides available online each evening before class!! – STUDY GUIDES, course information, syllabus, lectures, etc. – Lab Quizzes ONLINE every two weeks (posted by Tue., Due Thur.) every Thur – THUR. afternoon Review sessions before EACH Exam!! afternoon Review • ** STUDENTS: are expected to keep-up with ALL the reading for each ** STUDENTS up day’s lecture. Also, be sure to complete any Study questions and day Also, Study and Discussion problems before the next class. (& www.microbiologyplace.com). Discussion (& www.microbiologyplace.com). • 2 Hours By Arrangement: extra lab practice (open lab!!!), and !), Learning Center study groups/review sessions. During office hours/open labs. During Learning
• You will be tested primarily upon your knowledge gained in this You knowledge gained class, and your level of comprehension of the major concepts (So, comprehension of don’t just memorize facts and details!!). don • Diligence will be your key to success in this class. I want you ALL to want do well and have FUN learning about the fascinating & mysterious world of do world microbiology!! microbiology!! 1 • ** EXAMS: ** EXAMS “Fine Print” cont’d – For every exam, bring a pencil (#2 or HB lead), a blank “RED” scantron For pencil (#2 answer sheet** (100 questions per side, “a-e”), and a rested and ready mind!! (100 and • There will be NO MAKE-UP or RESCHEDULING of Exams (except for documented UP documented emergencies), so check your schedule NOW and PLAN appropriately!! so
– If you predict or have any problems, talk to Dr. Staples IMMEDIATELY!!! You must satisfactorily pass BOTH the Lecture and Lab (at pass and least 60% in each) to pass this course with a C or better!!!
• Cheating in any form will NOT be tolerated, and disciplinary action will ion be severely enforced by College Administration!! • ATTENDANCE: is MANDATORY For both LECTURE and LAB. ATTENDANCE: LECTURE and LAB
– You WILL FAIL the course if you do not attend at least 90% of class hours. You W ILL the 90% **************************************************************** • LAB: Lab Manual is at the bookstore (Staples, 5th Ed., Aug. 2009). (Staples, Ed., Aug. ).
– Read Introduction, write Pre-Lab (for whole week, each Mon.!!!), Read Pre (for Mon.!!!), and prepare for the next exercise BEFORE Monday’s Lab!! Monday Lab!! – Composition/bound notebook (sewn spine) iis preferred for lab s observations, data and conclusions. (NO spiral-bound notebooks or binders). (NO – ALWAYS bring GOGGLES (safety glasses) and closed-toed shoes. Coats optional. ALWAYS GOGGLES (safety closed Study Tips (6)
1. Read thoroughly, BEFORE CLASS.
– If you do this, you WILL do well in this course. If not, #2-6 won’t help much. won help Open your textbook TONIGHT!! 2. Spend significant time understanding figures Spend figures iillustrating concepts or processes. llustrating 3. Take good notes and annotate notes from the 3. from textbook. (Slides are NOT a substitute for active note-taking!!) (Slides 4. Condense notes into summary sheet of main Condense concepts (see Study Guides!!) with examples or diagrams, & concepts 5. Draw-out structures and processes for yourself! 6. Form a study group!! Share ideas & understanding! Form Explain concepts and quiz each other! • DRAW!! DRAW!! DRAW!! DRAW!! DRAW!! 2 Why do you want to learn MicroBiology? Why you want MicroBiology
• I study Biology, because I want to understand more about study the living world around me and that is a part of me. living and part • There is an immense DIVERSITY of life on earth, and an There DIVERSITY of immense diversity of life-sustaining processes….. immense • Perhaps the most interesting and manipulable organisms Perhaps manipulable organisms are MICRObes, especially bacteria. MICRObes especially
– Most of the life processes in microbes are directly applicable to the the biology of humans and other animals!! biology – Entering into the Microscopic World and exploring its mysteries Entering mysteries is a great adventure, and it can teach me enormous amounts of is great and information about myself and the world I live in. myself and the Chapter 1 The Microbial The World & You World Mouth 3 Ch. 1 Objectives:
Students should be able to:……
1. 2. 3. Name and describe the 7 major “groups” tthat include microorganisms. hat Name microorganisms Diagram and describe how Louis Pasteur proved how life truly arises. Diagram Louis Describe the work and significance of the discoveries of van Describe Leeuwenhoek, Pasteur, Jenner, Koch and Fleming. and 4. Diagram & describe Robert Koch’s postulates, and explain their Diagram Robert and significance to modern medicine and infectious disease. significance 5. Describe the threat of 4 emerging infectious diseases , and the type of Describe emerging and organism that causes each. organism 6. Ch. 2: Describe the 6 “Elements of Life”, ttheir relative electron affinities heir Describe electron and bonding properties, and their roles in biomolecules. and biomolecules These questions are your HOMEWORK between classes!!!!!! Microbes in Our Lives
• Microorganisms are organisms that are are too small to be seen with the unaided eye. too • “Germ” refers to a rapidly growing cell. TODAY’s Learning Objectives: Students should be able to…..
• *** Name and describe the 7 major groups that include microorganisms. 4 Activities of Microorganisms:
1. Decompose organic waste. 2. Are producers in the ecosystem by Are photosynthesis. photosynthesis 3. Produce industrial chemicals such as ethyl Produce industrial such alcohol and acetone. alcohol 4. Produce fermented foods such as vinegar, Produce fermented such cheese, and bread. cheese, Microorganisms:
Prokaryotes – bacteria Fungi Protists – Protozoa Protists - Algae Figure 1.1
Acellular - Viruses 5 Microorganisms:
• Produce products used in manufacturing (e.g., Produce manufacturing (e.g., cellulase) and medical treatment (e.g., insulin) cellulase and medical • A few are pathogenic = disease-causing few Knowledge of microorganisms:
• Allows humans to
– Prevent food spoilage – Prevent disease occurrence • Led to aseptic techniques to prevent contamination Led aseptic to in medicine and in microbiology laboratories. in 1.1) Naming & Classifying Naming Microorganisms Microorganisms
• Carolus Linnaeus (1735) established the (1735) system of scientific nomenclature. system • Each organism has two names: the genus Each genus and specific epithet. and specific 6 Scientific names
• Are italicized or underlined. Are
– Genus is CAPITALIZED – specific epithet is lower case. • Are “Latinized” and used worldwide. Are • May be descriptive or honor a scientist.
• For Example:
– Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus
• Describes the clustered arrangement of the cells (staphylo-) and the Describes clustered and golden color of the colonies. golden – Escherichia coli
• Honors the discoverer, Theodor Escherich, and describes the Honors Escherich and bacterium ’s habitat, the large intestine or colon. bacterium habitat, colon Classification of Classification Microorganisms Microorganisms
• Three Domains: (6 Kingdoms) 1. Bacteria 2. Archaea 3. Eukarya
a. b. c. d. Protists Fungi Plants Animals 7 Classification of Microbes: A. Bacteria (Eubacteria)
• Peptidoglycan cell walls • Divide by Binary fission • For energy:
– use organic chemicals, use inorganic chemicals, or photosynthesis photosynthesis
Figure 1.1a B. Archaea B. Archaea
• Lack peptidoglycan Lack peptidoglycan • Live in extreme Live environments environments • Include:
– Methanogens – “Extremophiles”:
• Extreme halophiles Extreme halophiles • Extreme thermophiles Extreme thermophiles
Figure 4.5b 8 C. Fungi
• Eukaryotes • Chitin cell walls • Use organic chemicals Use for energy for • Molds and mushrooms and mushrooms are multicellular are multicellular
– consisting of masses of consisting mycelia, mycelia – which are composed of which filaments called hyphae hyphae
Figure 1.1b • Yeasts are unicellular D. Protozoa (Protista)
• Eukaryotes • Absorb or ingest Absorb organic chemicals organic • May be motile via May pseudopods, cilia, or pseudopods cilia, flagella flagella
Figure 1.1c 9 E. Algae (Protista)
• • • Eukaryotes Cellulose cell walls Use photosynthesis Use for energy for • Produce molecular Produce oxygen and organic compounds compounds Volvox Figure 1.1d F. Viruses (acellular!)
• Consist of DNA or RNA core. Consist RNA • Core is surrounded by a Core protein coat. protein • Coat may be enclosed in a Coat lipid envelope. lipid • Obligate Parasites Obligate (Intracellular) = (Intracellular)
replicate only when they are inside of a living host cell. inside
HIV on WBC
Figure 1.1e 10 G. Multicellular Animal G. Multicellular Animal Parasites Parasites
• Eukaryote • Multicellular animals • Parasitic flatworms Parasitic and round worms are called Helminths. Helminths • Microscopic stages in Microscopic life cycles. life Figure 12.28 1.2) A Brief History of 1.2) Microbiology Microbiology
• Ancestors of bacteria were the first life on Earth. • The first microbes were observed in 1673. The 1673
– Van Leeuwenhoek 11 A. The First Observations
• In 1665, Robert Hooke reported that living In 1665 Robert reported things were composed of “little boxes” or or “cells”.
– Schleiden (botanist), Schwann (physiologist) (botanist), Schwann • In 1858, Rudolf Virchow said cells only In 1858 Rudolf said arise from preexisting cells. arise • Cell Theory: All living things are composed of cells and come from preexisting cells of The First Observations • 1673-1723 (studies), (studies), Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Antoni
– described live microorganisms described (“animalcules”) – observed in teeth scrapings, rain observed water, and peppercorn infusions water,
Figure 1.2 12 B. The Debate Over B. Spontaneous Generation Spontaneous
• Spontaneous Generation: the hypothesis the that living organisms arise from nonliving matter is called.
– a “Vital Force” Forms life. • Biogenesis: Alternative hypothesis, that the Alternative living organisms arise from preexisting life. living Evidence Pro and Con - 1 Evidence
1) 1668: Francisco Redi Redi filled six jars with filled decaying meat. decaying
Conditions Results 3 jars covered with fine net No maggots 3 open jars Maggots appeared • From where did the maggots come? • What was the purpose of the sealed jars? • Spontaneous generation or biogenesis? 13 Evidence Pro and Con - 2 Evidence
2) 1745: John Needham put boiled nutrient John put broth into covered flasks. broth
Conditions Results Nutrient broth heated, then Microbial growth Nutrient then placed in sealed flask • From where did the microbes come? • Spontaneous generation or biogenesis? Evidence Pro and Con - 3 Evidence
3) 1765: Lazzaro Spallanzani boiled nutrient Lazzaro boiled solutions in flasks. solutions Conditions Results Nutrient broth placed in No microbial growth Nutrient flask, heated, then sealed flask, • Spontaneous generation or biogenesis? 14 ...
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