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Unformatted text preview: 2/2/2010 BIOL 260: Human Physiology Human
Spring 2010 Spring W, Feb. 3, 2010 Feb. www.smccd.edu/accounts/staplesn/biol260
1. Pre-Lab Writeups: Be sure to prepare before each Monday Lab W riteups Be before each Monday or Wednesday labs (for WHOLE week!)!! or Wednesday
– (What? Why? How? are we doing in the lab??) 2. Next Week: Ex. 3: PhysioEx, Finish Ex. 4?, and Ex. 2. Ex. PhysioEx 3. Handouts for NEW EXPERMENT 4!! (Wear shorts!) Handouts (Wear
• Practice quiz will be posted on Webaccess/mrooms THIS week!! Practice Webaccess/mrooms 4. Lab Expt. 1 report (“Homeostasis”) due THIS WEEK!!.:
a) b) c) DUE IN LAB!!! Brief introduction, data and analysis (graphs and explanations), conclusions (answer questions from the Cañada Physiology website)
• Graph with EXCEL, “Create-A-Graph”**, or by hand on graph paper. Graph Write as a group (3-5)!! … Typed! With clearly-labeled, correct graphs. 5)!! 1. Describe and diagram membrane structure. Explain some functions of at least 5 types of Describe membrane Explain membrane components. membrane 2. Compare and contrast the various methods of passive (2) and active (3) membrane Compare transport. transport REVIEW TODAY: Students should be able to…..
1. Using diagrams, compare and contrast chemical (tonicity) and electrical Using equilibrium in cells. What are the uses of disequilibrium? equilibrium 2. Define and describe resting membrane potential. How is it maintained, Define resting How and why is it important for cell function? and 3. Describe and diagram how sodium and potassium permeabilities are Describe permeabilities are altered to establish resting membrane potentials, and to cause depolarizations. depolarizations 4. Ch. 8: Outline or diagram the general organization of the nervous sys ttem em into its central and peripheral pathways and subpathways. IInclude central and subpathways nclude inputs, outputs, and target organs. inputs, 5. Diagram and compare the cell structures of sensory/ afferent neurons, Diagram CNS interneurons, and efferent neurons. interneurons 1 2/2/2010 C. Secondary Active Transport: Uses Kinetic Energy of [ion] Uses • Cotransports
–Symport • [Ion] restored
–using ATP using Figure 5-15: Sodium-glucose symporter glucose symporter Energy Transfer: Review
• Cell metabolism Cell (Ch. 4) (Ch. • Membrane Membrane transport (Ch. 5) (Ch. • ** COUPLING
– Exergonic processes release processes energy energy – Released energy Released absorbed by Endergonic Endergonic processes
• Proceed!! Figure 5-19: Energy transfer in living cells 2 2/2/2010 D. Vesicles in Membrane Transport D.
• Bulk Transport Bulk Moves: Moves:
– particles particles – Large Large molecules molecules • Phagosome:
– Fusion with Fusion lysosome lysosome • Phagocytes Phagocytes
Figure 5-20 E. Endocytosis & Exocytosis: E. Endocytosis Exocytosis VacuoleTransport VacuoleTransport
• ENDOCYTOSIS: ENDOCYTOSIS:
– Pinocytosis: non-selective; small particles – Phagocytosis: non-selective; large selective; particles particles – Receptor mediated Endocytosis: Receptor Endocytosis
• specific substrate (ligand) only 3 2/2/2010 Endocytosis & Exocytosis: Exocytosis
Transport & Membrane Cycling Transport Figure 5-21: 21: ReceptorReceptor mediated mediated endocytosis endocytosis and exocytosis and exocytosis F. Transepithelial & F. Transepithelial Transcytosis Transcytosis
1. Cross two membranes
a) Apical (lumenal side) b) Basolateral (ECF side) 2. Absorption: lumen to ECF 3. Secretion: ECF to ECF lumen/surface lumen/surface 4 2/2/2010 1. Transepithelial Transport 1. Transepithelial Figure 5-26: Transepithelial transport of glucose 26: Transepithelial Figure 5-22 2. Transcytosis 2. Transcytosis Figure 5-24: Transcytosis across the capillary endothelium 24: Transcytosis 5 2/2/2010 Distribution of Water and Solutes Distribution in the Body Compartments in
• About 60% of body About weight is water weight • 67% water = 67% intracellular intracellular • 33% water = 33% extracellular extracellular
– 25% = interstitial – 8% = plasma • % varies slightly with varies gender and age gender Figure 5-25: Distribution of volume in the 25: body fluid compartments body 5.4) Osmosis & Osmotic 5.4) Osmosis Osmotic Equilibrium Equilibrium
1. W ater freely crosses Water membranes membranes 2. Osmotic pressure (mm Hg, atm) Osmotic atm 3. Osmolarity
– Molarity x # particles in particles solution/molecule (osm/L) solution/molecule 4. Osmolality – using body wt.
– Milliosmoles solute/kg water 5. Comparing two solutions
a) Isosmotic (same) b) Hyperosmotic (more) c) Hyposmotic (less) Figure 5-26: Osmosis and osmotic pressure 6 2/2/2010 A. Tonicity: How a Cell A. Tonicity Reacts in a Solution Reacts
• Depends on Depends osmolarity, but also osmolarity but permeability of permeability of solutes solutes
– = measure of the measure effect on the cell !!! effect • Penetrating solute • Non-penetrating solute
******************** 1) Isotonic cell same 2) Hypertonic cell shrivels 28a, 3) Hypotonic cell swells Figure 5-28a, b: Tonicity depends on the relative concentrations of nonpenetrating solutes nonpenetrating Tonicity: How a Cell Tonicity: Reacts in a Solution Reacts
• Penetrating solutes Penetrating can move and disrupt the chemical / osmotic equilibrium!! osmotic Figure 5-28c, d: Tonicity depends 28c, on the relative concentrations of nonpenetrating solutes nonpenetrating 7 2/2/2010 B. Electrical Disequilibrium
• Separation of charged ions
– Membrane insulates – Potential = stored energy; required to keep charges separate Potential stored – Conduction of signal – when broken locally Conduction • Electrochemical gradient Figure 5-29: Separation of electrical charge 29: C. Membrane Potentials: Change with Permeability Change
1. Resting 2. Equilibrium Equilibrium 3. Channel opening 3.
a) Voltage gated Voltage b) ATP gated (leak) b) ATP 8 2/2/2010 1.) Membrane Potentials: 1.) Potassium (major contributor!!) Potassium Figure 5-31: Potassium equilibrium potential Membrane Potentials: Membrane Potassium Potassium Figure 5-33 9 2/2/2010 2.) Membrane Potentials: Sodium 2.) Membrane Sodium Figure 5-32: Sodium equilibrium potential Figure 5-34 10 2/2/2010 **Summary: **Summary: Vm-regulated Response ** Figure 5-35: Insulin secretion and membrane transport processes Chapter 8 Neurons: Neurons:
Cellular and Network Properties Cellular 11 2/2/2010 8.1) Organization of the 8.1) Nervous System Nervous
1. Rapid communication for homeostatic balance. 2. Emergent properties of intelligence & emotion. 3. Central Nervous system (CNS)
a) Brain b) Spinal Cord 4. Peripheral Nervous system (PNS)
a) Afferent (sensory) nerves - APNS Afferent b) Efferent (response) nerves - EPNS Efferent
1. Autonomic Neurons (visceral system)
a) Sympathetic – “Fight or Flight” Sympathetic b) Parasympathetic – “Rest and Digest” Parasympathetic • Both antagonize each other on target organs: smooth Both muscle, cardiac muscle, exocrine glands/cells, some endocrine glands/cells, & some adipose tissue endocrine 2. Somatic Motor Neurons
• Skeletal muscles tissue responses Skeletal Organization of the Nervous System
CNS: CNS: PNS:
Aff-PNS Eff-PNS ENS: Figure 8-1: Organization of the nervous system 1: 12 2/2/2010 8.2) A Typical Neuron Overview 1. Dendrites 2. Cell Body 3. Axon 4. Terminal
Figure 8-2: Model neuron Diverse Neuron Form & Functions
1. Pseudounipolar 2. Bipolar 3. Anaxonic 4. Multipolar – CNS 5. Multipolar – efferent
Figure 8-3: Anatomic and functional categories of neurons 3: Anatomic 13 2/2/2010 A. Metabolism and Synthesis A. in a Neuron in
• Cell body = site of energy generation site and synthesis and • Axonal transport
– Vesicles –
• Fast axonal transport to terminal • Retrograde to cell body – Electrical depolarizations Electrical depolarizations Metabolism and Synthesis in Metabolism a Neuron Neuron Figure 8-4: Fast Axonal transport of membranous organelles 14 ...
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This document was uploaded on 03/18/2010.
- Spring '09