PHYSIO-s10_01 - BIOL 260: Human Physiology Rm. 22-116...

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Unformatted text preview: BIOL 260: Human Physiology Rm. 22-116 22Spring 2010 (Jan. 20, 2010) Dr. Nathan Staples (Ph.D., UCSB 2002) (Ph.D., 1. Part I: Homeostasis, Nerves & Skeletal Muscle • MT1 = Mon., 3/1 2. Part II: Smooth Muscle, Cardiovascular, & Gas Exchange • MT2 = Mon., 3/29 3. Part III: Digestion, Metabolism & Hormones • MT3 = Mon., 5/3 4. Part IV: Water Regulation & Kidneys FINAL EXAM (1/3 cumulative): Wed., 5/26, 11:10 AM “Fine Print” PROFESSOR’s INFORMATION: • Dr. Staples’ Office hours (16-207): *** TR 12:30 pm-2 pm, MW 10-11AM, (16pmMW 10-11AM, BY APPOINTMENT!! ☺ ***, (650) 306-3251. 306- • Website: – “Pre-Lecture” slides available online each evening before class. “Pre– Study materials, course information, syllabus, lectures, etc. – Lab Quizzes ONLINE every two weeks (posted by Mon., Due Wed.!) • ** STUDENTS: are expected to keep-up with ALL the reading for each STUDENTS keepday’s lecture. Also, be sure to complete any Review questions and EndReview Endofof-chapter problems before the next class. – (& • You will be tested primarily upon your knowledge gained in this thi class, and your level of comprehension of the major concepts – (So, don’t just memorize facts and details!!). • Diligence will be your key to success in this class! • I want you ALL to do well and have FUN learning about the fascinating & functional World of Physiology!! 1 • ** EXAMS: 3 MT, 1 Final (partially cumulative); (& 7 Quizzes) EXAMS – For every exam, bring a pencil (#2 or HB lead), a blank scantron answer sheet pencil blank (Red, 100 questions/side, “a-e”), and a well-rested and ready mind!! “awell- “Fine Print” cont’d • There will be NO MAKE-UP or RESCHEDULING of Exams (except for MAKE(except documented emergencies), so check your schedule NOW and PLAN appropriately!! appropriately!! – If you have any problems, talk to Dr. Staples IMMEDIATELY!!! • Cheating in any form will NOT be tolerated, and disciplinary action will be severely severely enforced by College Administration!! • ATTENDANCE: is MANDATORY For both LECTURE and LAB. You WILL FAIL the course if you do not attend at least 90% of class hours. 90% **************************************************************** • LAB: Lab Manual is available at bookstore (Hirzel, 2008). – Read Introduction, write Pre-Lab (for whole week, each Mon.!!!), and prepare for the next exercise BEFORE Monday’s Lab!! – For “live” labs, all data and observations must be completed in the manual before leaving each period. 3– HYBRID = 3-4 hours of lab completed online/electronically EACH week – Lab reports: Answer questions on College Physio website; Work in groups of 3-4. Each member must SIGN the Typed report, indicating an 3equal contribution to the lab work and to the writing. Study Tips (6) 1. Read thoroughly, BEFORE CLASS. – If you do this, you WILL do well in this course. If not, #2-6 #2won’t help much. Open your textbook TONIGHT!! Open your textbook TONIGHT!! Answer Answer Questions, Do Problems!! … PRACTICE! 2. Spend significant time understanding figures figures illustrating concepts or processes. 3. Take good notes and annotate notes from the textbook. (Slides are NOT a substitute for active note-taking!!) (Slides note4. Condense notes into summary sheet of main main concepts concepts (see Study Guides!!) with examples or diagrams, & 5. Draw-out structures and processes for yourself! Draw6. Form a study group!! Share ideas & understanding! Explain concepts and quiz each other! 2 Why do you want to learn Physiology? • I study Biology, because I want to understand more about the living world around me and that is a part of me. • There is an immense DIVERSITY of life on earth, and an There is an immense DIVERSITY of life on earth and an immense immense diversity of life-sustaining processes….. life• As selfish and concerned creatures, we like to learn about ourselves and how our bodies function and interact with the environment – By better understanding the molecules, cells, tissues & organs By th ti that make up our body, we can better understand how our body functions. – Then we can take better care of ourselves and others, and better appreciate and preserve other creatures in our natural environment. Chapter 1 Introduction to Physiology 3 1.1) Levels of Organization • Physiology defined: – Study of vital functions of the human (animal, plant) body and its components [eg: red blood cell] – Teleological view: Function explains why it needs to be done. – Mechanistic view: Mechanism explains how it does that job. • Organization of life: – The cell is the basic unit of life – Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems & organisms Figure 1-1: Levels of organization and the related fields of study 1.2) Organ Systems In Review 1. 1. Integumentary 2. Musculoskeletal 3. Respiratory 4. Digestive 5. Urinary 6. Reproductive 7. Circulatory Circulatory 8. Immune 9. Endocrine 10. Nervous Figure 1-2: The integration between systems of the body 4 1.3) Evolution of Physiological Systems 1. 2. 3. 4. Cell Intracellular fluid Extracellular fluid Organism a) Protective cells b) Exchange cells • Few in an animal! 5. External environment • Homeostasis defined • Emergent properties – Not predicted from individual components – > simple sum of parts Figure 1-3: The internal and external environments – Maintain stable internal envt 1.4) Homeostasis & Controls 1. External or internal change or internal change 2. Loss of homeostasis 3. Physiological attempt to correct – Sensors, integrating center – Response of cells & organs 5 Homeostasis & Controls • Successful compensation compensation – Homeostasis reestablished • Failure to compensate – Pathophysiology • Illness • Death Figure 1-4: Homeostasis 1.5) Themes in Physiology 1. Homeostasis 2. Structure/function Structure/function relationships relationships 3. Integration of systems 4. Communication 5. Membranes & exchange 6. Energy 7. Mass balance 8. Mass flow & resistance Figure 5-1: Mass balance in the body 6 1.6) Representing Data: Graphs • X- axis – Independent variable • Manipulated or set • Y- axis – Dependent variable • Measured • • • • • • Line graph Bar graph Histogram Scatter plot Interpolation "Best Fit" line Figure 1-7 Representing Data Graphs: Line and Interpolation Figure 1-7d 7 Chapter 6 Communication, Integration, & Homeostasis 1. How cells communicate 2. Electrical and chemical signals 3. Receptor types and how they function 4. Local regulation of cells 5. Modification of receptors and Modification of receptors and signals signals 6. Homeostatic balance depends on communication 7. Feedback regulates integration of systems Cell Membrane (review Ch.3) 1. Barrier from Barrier from a) a) Outside b) ECF 2. Cell gateway 3. Cell structure 4. Phospholipid bilayer 8 Cell Membrane Figure 3-4: The cell membrane 6.1) Overview of Cell to Cell Communication: 1. Chemical a) Autocrine & Paracrine: local signaling b) Endocrine system: distant, diffuse to target (slow) 2. Electrical a) Gap junction: local b) Nervous system: fast, specific, distant target 9 A. Gap Junctions and CAMs • Protein channels – connexin connexons connexons form Gap Junctions Gap Junctions • Direct flow to adjacent neighbor – Electrical- ions (charge) Electrical– Signal chemicals • CAMs = Cellular Adhesion Molecules – Need direct surface contact – Signal chemical Figure 6-1a, b: Direct and local cell-to-cell communication B. Paracrines and Autocrines • Local communication • Signal chemicals diffuse to target • Example: Cytokines – Autocrine – receptor on same same cell that secreted – Paracrine – receptor on neighboring/adjac. neighboring/adjac. cells Figure 6Figure 6-1c: Direct and local cell-to-cell cell-tocommunication 10 C. Long Distance Communication: 1) 1) Hormones 1. Signal Chemicals Chemicals 2. Made in endocrine cells 3. Transported via blood blood 4. Receptors on target cells **** Figure 6-2a: Long distance cell-to-cell communication Long Distance Communication: 2) Neurons and Neurohormones 1. Neurons – Electrical signal down axon signal down axon – Signal molecule crosses gap (neurotransmitter) to target cell • Common nerve-nerve, nervenervenervemuscle sense/response pathways 2. Neurohormones – Chemical and electrical Chemical and electrical signals signals down axon – Hormone transported via blood to target • Eg: breast milk release; Eg: nipple stimulation oxytocin oxytocin release Figure 6-2 b, c: Long distance cell6celltoto-cell communication 11 6.2) Signal Pathways 1. Signal molecule (ligand) ligand) 2. Receptor 3. Intracellular signal 4. Target protein 5. Response Figure 6-3: Signal pathways A. Receptors: Locations • Cytosolic or Nuclear – Lipophilic ligand enters cell • (hydrophobic) Figure 6-4: Target cell receptors 6- – Often activates gene – Slower response • Cell membrane – Lipophobic ligand can't enter cell • (hydrophilic) – Outer surface receptor – Fast response 12 Membrane Receptor Classes (4) Receptor Channel Signal Transduction!! Figure 6-5: Four classes of membrane receptors B. Signal Transduction • Transforms signal energy & carries across membrane!!! • Protein kinase – Phosphorylates other proteins – Transfers phosphate from ATP • Second messenger – NO, Ca++, CO • Activate proteins proteins – Phosporylation – Bind calcium • Cell response Figure 6-8: Biological signal transduction 13 C. Signal Amplification • Small signal produces Small signal produces large large cell response – Cytokines – peptides – Eicosanoids – lipids • Amplification enzyme • Cascade – One ligand is amplified into many intracellular molecules!!! Figure 6-7: Signal amplification D. Example Signal Pathway: GPCR 1. Membrane-spanning proteins proteins 2. Cytoplasmic tail linked to G protein, a protein threethree-part transducer molecule 3. When G proteins are activated, they proteins a) Open ion channels in the membrane th b) Alter enzyme activity on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane 14 ...
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