compiled bio report 3

compiled bio report 3 - Human Variation Team: xx4 Date:...

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Human Variation Team: xx 4 Date: 2/23/2009 Authors: Jackie Fingerhut Ashley Dunham Norkhairin Yusuf Tia Long
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Abstract: In the modern world, people are assembled into groups called races based on their physical appearance, but race does not necessarily correlate with ancestry. There are people of the same race living in all parts of the world, and in addition to having race, they have ancestry. Ancestry deals with the geographic location from which a person’s family stems and may or may not correlate with race. Someone of dark skin might be African, but they could also be Irish. By analyzing several individuals’ DNA, it can be shown that race, because of its lack of coordination with ancestry, does not necessarily describe a group of genetically similar individuals. In this study, there was a 5.2% difference in the DNA sequences of Asians, a 3.6% difference between Western Europeans, and only a 1.1% difference between an individual from Sub-Saharan Africa and an Eastern European. Therefore, the social classification of race can in no way be used to identify interpersonal relatedness. Introduction: Human beings come in all shapes, sizes, and colors. Some people are tall while others are short. Some people have very dark skin while others are very pale. Some people have eyes that slant up or down. All of these characterizations and physical differences group people together into races. It is possible to tell where someone is from (at least ancestrally) by their appearance, but how deep do these differences go? In reality, all Homo sapiens are not very genetically diverse. All living humans are the decedents of several common ancestors who lived in Africa hundreds of thousands of years ago (Chakravarti 2009). Through a series of great migrations out of Africa, the rest of the world was populated, spreading to Asia, Europe, and across the Bering Straight into North and South America (Risch et al 2002). In the 21 st century, many countries have their own, unique customs and their own language, and because of these, many individuals mate with someone else within the same population and very few mate with someone from a distant region (Tishkoff et al 2004). While this fact provides an argument for the ideas of race and grouping people together by how they live, biological evidence exists to show that these groups are not genetically close. Humans differ from each other by an average of between 1 in 1000 and 1 in 1500 nucleotides (Jorde et al 2004), which is the same as saying that all H. sapiens are between 99.6 and 99.8% identical (Tishkoff et al 2004). The genetic differences that exist among humans are greatest on a continental basis with 75% of all differences occurring between people who live in the same region while only 10% of differences occur between people who live in different regions (Risch et al 2002). After people left Africa, they spread to all parts of the world, eliminating a large amount of the genetic drift that happens between populations. Each of these new groups was able
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2010 for the course COS 1004.212.0 taught by Professor Na during the Spring '10 term at RIT.

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compiled bio report 3 - Human Variation Team: xx4 Date:...

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