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# 2001 - THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG BACHELOR OF SCIENCE...

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Unformatted text preview: THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG BACHELOR OF SCIENCE: FINAL EXAMINATION BOTANY/ZOOLOGY: BIOL1106 Genetics 12 June 2001 9.30 3111—1130 are Candidates may use any self-contained, silent, battery-operated and pocket-sized calculator. The calculator should have numeral-display facilities only and should be used only for the purpose of calculation. It is the candidate’s responsibility to ensure that his/her calculator operates satisfactorily. Candidates must record the name and type of their calculators on the front page of their examination scripts. Answer any FIVE questions I. In mangoes wide leaf and narrow leaf are alternative characters and wide (W) is dominant to narrow (w). Red stem and green stem are another pair of characters with red (R) dominant to green (1'). A true-breeding wide, green mango plant is crossed with a true-breeding narrow, red plant and the F1 plants are interbred. 320 F2 plants were produced with the following phenotypes; 189 wide, red; 67 wide, green; 50 narrow, red; and 14 narrow, green. Suggest a hypothesis to explain these results and test your hypothesis with the x 2‘ test. The probabilities of exceeding different chi-square Values far degrees of freedam from 1 ta 50 when the expected hypothesis ls true' Probabilities off .95 .90 .261 .50 .30 .20 .10 .65 .0) .00! 1 .0114 .016 .15 .46 1.1311r 1.64 2.21 3.34 6.64 10.33 2 .10 .21 .71 1.39 2.41 3.22 4.61 5.99 9.21 13.32 3 .35 .53 1.42 2.3? 3.6? 4.64 6.25 7.32 11.35 16.2? 4 .111 1.116 2.211 3.36 4.33 5.99 2.23 9.49 13.23 13.4? 5 1.15 1.61 3.3-0 4.35 6.06 7.29 9.24 11.07 15.09 20.52 6 l .64 2.20 3.33 S .33 '1 .23 3.56 10.65 12.59 '1 6.3 1 22.46 2 2.11f 2.33 4.67 6.35 3.33 9.311 12.02 14.07 13.43 24.32 3 2.?3 3.49 5.53 7.34 9.52 11.03 13.36 15.51 20.119 26.13 9 3.33 4.17 6.39 3.34 10.66 12.24 14.63 16.92 21.6? 22.33 1'0 3.94 4.31 1.21 9.34 11.13 13.44 15.99 13.31 23.21 29.59 H 4.53 - 5.53 3.15 10.34 12.90 14.63 12.23 19.63 24.23 31.26 12 5.23 6.30 .9103 | 1.34 14.131 15.31 13.55 21.03 26.22 32.91 1.1 5.39 7.04 9.93 12.34 15.12 16.99 19.31 22.36 27.69 34.53 1'4 6.5? "1.79 10.32 13.34 16.22 13.15 21.06 23.69 29.14 36.12 .15 7.26 3.55 11.12 14.34 12.32 19.31 22.31 25.00 30.53 37.30 211 10.35 12.44 16.2? 1 9. 34 22.23 25.134 23.41 31.41 37.5? 45.32 2.5 14.61 16.4? 20.3? 24.34 23.1? 30.63 34.33 3?.65 44.31 52.62 36' 13.49 20.66 25.51 29.34 33.53 36.25 413.26 43.77 50.39 59.71) 50 34.?6 32.69 44.31 49.34 54.72 53.16 63.11r 6?.51 '16. 1 5 36.66 at .05 level " Abridged lrarn Table W of Fisher and 'fales, Statistical Tables for Biological. Apricua‘taral and Hedhal Research. Oliver and Bard ltd... Edinburgh. by permission :1 the anthers and publllhers. In the Sangria plant ﬂower colour is determined by two genes Y & R. Neither gene is completely dominant and they interact to produce a range of different colours. a) If Y/Y R/R ﬂowers are bright-red and y/y — ﬂowers are white, what colours would you expect for each of the following combinations of alleles; Y/Y R/r, Y/Y r/r, Y/y R/IL Y/y R/r, Y/y r/r? b) In a cross of a bright-red coloured ﬂower plant with a homozygous double recessive white plant, what will be the appearance of the F], the F2 and the offspring of an F , backcross to the bright-red parent? 0) What will be the ﬂower colours in the offspring of a cross of Y/Y R/r with Y/y r/r‘? d) What will be the ﬂower colours in the offspring of a cross of a YfY r/r urith y/y R/r white? Describe (a) ﬁve unique features of the DNA molecule, and (b) the human genome project, What is a gene? Discuss the importance of the gene. Write brieﬂy (about half of a page) on each of the following terms: (a) telomere (b) allopolyploid y (c) aneuploids (d) continuous variation If the genotypes AA, Art and an in a population have frequencies of 0.5, 0.25, and 0.25, respectively, a) what is the frequency of allele A? b) what is the frequency of allele a? c) after a single generation of random mating, what is the expected frequency of AA, An, and an? d) what is the observed heterozygosity at the locus? e) what is the expected heterozygosity at the locus? f) If another population has three alleles with equal frequencies at the same locus, which population is genetically more variable at this locus? The DNA sequence for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxydase subunit 1 (C01) gene is 1939 bp long in the chimpanzee, the gorilla and the orangutan. A total of 152 sites are different between the chimpanzee and the gorilla sequences, 220 between the chimpanzee and orangutan sequences and 228 between the orangutan and the gorilla sequences. i) Calculate the Poisson—corrected genetic distances for the three pairs of species. ii) It is known that the chimpanzee and orangutan diverged about 14 million years ago, i.e., their most recent common ancestor lived about 14 million year ago. Use this information to calibrate the COI clock so that we can make a statement that 1% of sequence difference is equivalent to how many million years. iii) Use the molecular clock above to obtain the divergence time between the chimpanzee and the gorilla, i.e., answering the question of “When did the most recent common ancestor of the chimpanzee and gorilla live on earth?” END OF PAPER ...
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2001 - THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG BACHELOR OF SCIENCE...

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