genomes and genomics

genomes and genomics - BIOC2603 (2007) BIOC2603 (2007)...

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IOC2603 (2007) BIOC2603 (2007) Genomes and Genomics Brian Wong bcwwong@hkucc.hku.hk
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References rown TA (2007) Genomes 3rd ed Chapters 7 Brown TA (2007) Genomes 3rd ed. Chapters 7-8 (see http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/ for 2 nd ed.) International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (2001) Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature 409: 860-921. artwell LH et al (2004) Genetics - rom Genes to Genomes Hartwell LH et. al. (2004) Genetics From Genes to Genomes. 2 nd ed. Chapter 10 Strachan T and Read AP (2004) Human Molecular Genetics 3 rd ed. Chapters 8-10.
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Topics hat are genomes? What are genomes? Why sequence genomes? How genomes are sequenced? Characteristics of prokaryotic, mitochondrial and human uclear genomes nuclear genomes Comparing genomes
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DNA RNAs Proteins Genome : Gen e + chromosome Complete set of chromosomal and extrachromosomal genes of an organism Transcription Transcriptome: The complete set of RNA messages transcribed from a cell’s genome Translation Proteome: The complete set of protein of an organism coded for by its genome
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Many genomes have been sequenced, many more to e sequenced be sequenced. ublished complete genomes (Aug 2007): Published complete genomes (Aug 2007): Prokaryotes: 523 bacteria 46 archaea Eukaryotes: 65 eukaryotes > 1,500 viruses The three domains of life forms based on the 16S rRNA sequences. > 2,000 ongoing genome projects http://www.genomesonline.org/
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Aims of genome projects o sequence the complete genome To sequence the complete genome To identify genes To provide functional information on genes To characterize genetic variations To compare genome sequences with other genomes To research on ethical, legal and social issues of genetic research etc…
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Potential benefits of genome projects olecular medicine 1. molecular medicine ± improved diagnosis of disease ± earlier detection of genetic predispositions to disease ± customized treatment tailored to individual’s genetic profile ± etc icrobial genomics 2. microbial genomics ± rapid detection of pathogens ± understanding the causes of pathenogenicity and drug resistance ± identify proteins unique to bacteria that can serve as (http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/project/benefits.shtml) drug targets ± etc
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Bacterial genome information can speed up vaccine evelopment development. Predict antigens Make recombinant proteins Genome sequences of a bacterium (e.g. N. eningitidis Immunize mice Identify vaccine candidates meningitidis ) y Scarselli M. et al (2005) The impact of genomics on vaccine design. Trends in Biotechnology 23: 84-91.
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Potential benefits of genome projects sk assessment 3. risk assessment 4. bioarchaeology, anthropology, evolution, and human migration 5. DNA forensics griculture livestock breeding and bioprocessing 6. agriculture, livestock breeding, and bioprocessing http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/project/benefits.shtml
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Shotgun sequencing: sequences from overlapping agments are used to assemble genome sequences fragments are used to assemble genome sequences.
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genomes and genomics - BIOC2603 (2007) BIOC2603 (2007)...

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