L5 Resort_Model_and_Tourist_Area_Planning_u

L5 Resort_Model_and_Tourist_Area_Planning_u - The...

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The Destination
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Key Questions 1. Under what conditions does tourism develop? 2. Where does tourism develop and in what form? 3. How is tourism developed (rate and by whom)? 4. Who are the tourists? What are their motives? 5. What are the impacts of tourism?
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Tourist Destination What is a Tourist destination/attraction? A tourism destination is… “a system compromising three elements: a tourist or human element, a nucleus or central element, and a marker or informative element” Leiper (1990: 371-372) According to Leiper, a tourist attraction comes into existence when these three elements are present
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Components of a Destination Components of a Destination Natural resources – but not always Infrastructure Suprastructure (“services”) Transportation Hospitality
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Components of a Destination Components of a Destination Sense of place Unique selling proposition (USP) Gateway Product-market match Clustering Partnerships Environmental protection
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Tourism Planning Scale global, international, regional, and local patterns and interactions. Space Spatial distribution of tourism phenomenon, hierarchy of attractions, patterns of demand and associated travel movements, distance effects. Impacts Planning Tourism as an agent for change Modelling trends and impacts
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Campbell’s Model of Recreational and Vacational Travel
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Different tourism development rates/intensities in a destination through time and space Different tourism attributes at different places/ destinations Miossec’s Evolution of Tourism Development (1976)
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Tourist Area Life Cycle (TALC) Tourist Area Life Cycle (TALC)
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Plog (1974) A ‘psychographic’ typology, by attitudes to travel and type of destination sought Independent travellers Above average income Adventure-seeking Less confident travellers Seek similar environments to home Like familiar experiences Majority of travellers Seek established destinations May visit destinations popular with allocentrics Allocentric Psychocentric Mid-centric
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Doxey’s Irritation Index (Irridex) Doxey’s Irritation Index (Irridex)
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Destination life cycle - critique Destination life cycle - critique Descriptive model – not predictive Applies in many cases – at least superficially Time frame not specified – 10 years, 100 years? Nature of tourists changes, not just number Not all destinations follow
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Planning is needed to help achieve the tourism developmental goals Why plan? What would happen if there was no planning for tourism? Things would get worse Decisions based on poor information Tourism would develop inefficiently Unregulated tourism development Increase of negative tourism impacts
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Planning Planning can be a mechanism for Integrating tourism alongside other economic sectors Shaping and controlling physical patterns of development Conserving scares or important resources Providing frameworks for active promotion and marketing of destinations
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