lecture20_july19th

lecture20_july19th - Mental Set Unwarranted assumptions...

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Mental Set Unwarranted assumptions Incomplete or incorrect representations
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Other Factors Influencing Problem Solving 1. Memory- experts have better memory 2. Knowledge base 3. Representation- experts are more abstract 4. Recovering structural similarity- identifying isomorphs 5. Speed & efficiency
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Role of Expertise Expertise: Facilitates perception of the problem Gives a frame for sorting relevant from irrelevant information. Experts: Are able to consider more relevant information while solving a problem Represent the problem at a deeper more principled level Spend more time considering the problem before looking for solutions More likely to check for errors in their thinking
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Lack of Expertise De Groot (1965) Examined chess masters and novices Both considered the same number of possible moves But masters somehow chose the best move more easily Experts able to extract more information from brief exposure Experts can recall more items from a 5 second exposure of a chessboard But only when the pieces are configured to depict a possible chess game
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A woman has 4 pieces of chain. Each piece is made up of 3 links, as shown above. She wants to join the pieces into a single closed loop of chain. To open a link costs 2 cents and to close a link costs 3 cents. She only has 15 cents. How does she do it? The Chain Problem
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Gestalt Approach Took a perceptual approach to problem solving Problem solving was about How people represent a problem in their mind How solving a problem involves a reorganization or restructuring of this representation i.e., changing the problems representation This is associated with insight (a sudden realization of the solution to the problem)
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Insight Do some problems involve insight while others do not? Two kinds of problems:
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2010 for the course PSYCH 207 taught by Professor Lodson during the Spring '05 term at Waterloo.

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lecture20_july19th - Mental Set Unwarranted assumptions...

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