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lecture20_july19th

lecture20_july19th - Mental Set Unwarranted assumptions...

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Mental Set Unwarranted assumptions Incomplete or incorrect representations
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Other Factors Influencing Problem Solving Expertise- e.g., novices & experts differ in 1. Memory- experts have better memory 2. Knowledge base 3. Representation- experts are more abstract 4. Recovering structural similarity- identifying isomorphs 5. Speed & efficiency
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Role of Expertise Expertise: Facilitates perception of the problem Gives a frame for sorting relevant from irrelevant information. Experts: Are able to consider more relevant information while solving a problem Represent the problem at a deeper more principled level Spend more time considering the problem before looking for solutions More likely to check for errors in their thinking
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Lack of Expertise De Groot (1965) Examined chess masters and novices Both considered the same number of possible moves But masters somehow chose the best move more easily Chase & Simon (1996) Experts able to extract more information from brief exposure Experts can recall more items from a 5 second exposure of a chessboard But only when the pieces are configured to depict a possible chess game
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A woman has 4 pieces of chain. Each piece is made up of 3 links, as shown above. She wants to join the pieces into a single closed loop of chain. To open a link costs 2 cents and to close a link costs 3 cents. She only has 15 cents. How does she do it? The Chain Problem
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Gestalt Approach Took a perceptual approach to problem solving Problem solving was about How people represent a problem in their mind How solving a problem involves a reorganization or restructuring of this representation i.e., changing the problems representation This is associated with insight (a sudden realization of the solution to the problem)
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Insight Metcalfe & Wiebe (1987) Do some problems involve insight while others do not?
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