lecture18_july7

lecture18_july7 - Role of context; familiarity Constraints...

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Role of context; familiarity
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Constraints on interpretation Whorfian hypothesis of linguistic relativity Language both directs and constrains thought and perception Inuit have seven words for snow- each conveys a slightly different meaning Indonesian tribe: mili versus mola for dark/light But see text for examples counter to this hypothesis
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Localization of language Classical areas are in left hemisphere Broca’s area in frontal lobe Wernicke’s area in posterior superior temporal lobe Sensory and motor representation areas of the face Supplementary speech areas in both hemispheres
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Figure 9-8 (p. 349) Some underlying brain structures involved with language.
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PET studies of speech zones Peterson et al., 1988 Passive viewing: primary and secondary areas in occipital lobe Passive hearing: primary and secondary areas in temporal lobe Seeing pronounceable words AND nonwords: left occipital lobe Seeing non-pronounceable nonwords did not activate left occipital Hearing words and nonwords activated Wernicke’s area did not activate Wernicke’s area BRAIN CATEGORIZES INPUTS EARLY ON! Experience-dependent changes in brain
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Aphasia Disorder of language apparent in speech, writing, or reading Produced by injury to brain areas specialized for these functions Paraphasia: production of unintended syllables, words, or phrases when speaking Occurs to many of us Not a disorder, just a nuisance
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Classification of aphasias NON-fluent Fluent Broca’s Wernicke’s Global Conduction Transcortical motor Anomic
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Broca’s aphasia Non-fluent Poor repetition (of words spoken by experimenter) Poor naming More trouble identifying verbs than nouns Ability to name actions (verbs) are stored in the same cortical neighborhood as ability to control the action itself! Good comprehension But poor syntax “Max took Henry’s cookie” hard to understand Lesion? Dominant (usually left) posterior inferior frontal region In/near motor areas of brain
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Global aphasia Non-fluent speech Poor comprehension Poor repetition Poor naming Lesion? Dominant hemisphere, frontal, temporal and parietal lobes; includes both Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas
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Transcortical Motor aphasia Lack of drive to speak But when speaks is fluent Good comprehension Good repetition Poor naming Can’t get started Lesion?
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2010 for the course PSYCH 207 taught by Professor Lodson during the Spring '05 term at Waterloo.

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lecture18_july7 - Role of context; familiarity Constraints...

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